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Full text of "A short history of the Baptist denomination"

DUKE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
DURHAM, N. C. 




K^r'rl ?fe)L«^<L^J S '2? '., S'?J?4? 







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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
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A SHORT HISTORY OF THE BAPTIST 
DENOMINATION 



A SHORT 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



BAPTIST DENOMINATION 



MILES MARK FISHER 

Sometime Hoyt Professor of Church History 
The Richmond Theological Seminary, Virginia Union University 

Minister in the White Rock Baptist Church 
Durham, North Carolina 



SUNDAY SCHOOL PUBLISHING BOARD 

A. M. Townsend, D. D., Secretary 

Nashville, Tennessee 



Copyright, 1933, by 
MILES MARK FISHER 



Published June, 1933 



Printed in U. S. -A- 



3 /f 



University Library 



J^hSO 






To 
GEORGE RICE HOVET 

noble son of a distinguished father 

who spent his life for underprivileged people 

Scholar Educator Administrator Friend 



670/\ 






FOREWORD 



This history is written at the invitation of the Na- 
tional Ministers' Institute. Since no authoritative 
history of the Baptists has appeared which includes 
the religious development of its racial constituents 
other than as distinct and separate groups, and that 
not proportionately treated, there is need of a story 
like this which essays to treat the story of the de- 
nomination as a unified whole. If, however, Negro 
Baptists seem to be stressed disproportionately, it must 
not be forgotten that they have more communicants 
by over a million than there are Baptists in the rest 
of the world exclusive of the United States, that in 
America they are about twice as numerous as North- 
ern Baptists and about equal in number to Southern 
Baptists, and that their history is available nowhere 
else. 

Some findings in my unpublished manuscript on 
The History of Negro Baptists are incorporated here. 
So I am indebted to all those who helped me in that 
study, chief among whom are Dr. Carter G. Woodson, 
who encouraged me ; Dr. Benjamin Brawley of Howard 
University; Dr. L. G. Jordan, Nashville, Tennessee; 
and Dr. Norman Cox and Attorney James R. Cain of 
Savannah, Georgia, who put valuable source material 
at my disposal, and Professor W. W. Sweet, who criti- 
cally used my manuscript as a basis for the first 
course on the Negro Church at the? University of Chi- 



670 h 



Foreword 



cago. I am also indebted to many librarians, includ- 
ing Dr. Frank G. Lewis of the American Baptist His- 
torical Society and Dr. Garnett Ryland of the Vir- 
ginia Baptist Historical Society. 

In spite of the many omissions especially of out- 
standing Baptists now living and of the probable in- 
accuracies, it is hoped that this history will not prove 
too inadequate generally for information and inspira- 
tion, for it is believed that the final story of the Bap- 
tists will be written along the line herein suggested. 
The truth as revealed in the documents has not been 
set aside because Baptists are now prepared for a 
frank discussion of human problems. May the spirit 
of the Galilean guide us into all truth. 



The Upper Room M. M. F. 

8, February, 1933 

viii 



CONTENTS 



Chapter Page 

I INTRODUCTION 1 

II ENGLISH BAPTISTS 10 

III BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA 25 

IV PROPAGATING THE FAITH 40 

V THE SLAVERY CONTROVERSY ___ 56 

VI NORTHERN BAPTISTS 70 

VII SOUTHERN BAPTISTS 87 

VIII NEGRO BAPTISTS 103 

IX THE FAMILY CIRCLE 123 

X SOCIAL PROGRESS 139 

XI EUROPEAN BAPTISTS 156 

XII BAPTISTS OF TODAY 169 

COLLATERAL READING 181 

INDEX 183 



IX 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION 

Founding of the Church 

Jesus of Nazareth instituted a way of life compell- 
ing - enough for hundreds of modern denominations to 
see in it the initiation of their sects, but, as Peabody 
says, "hardly any problem of exegesis is more dif- 
ficult than to discover in the gospels an administra- 
tive or organizing or ecclesiastical Christ." When the 
two disciples of John the Baptist followed Jesus as 
their Messiah, the church was conceived, but its 
birthday was at Pentecost when three thousand new 
believers were convicted by Peter's preaching that the 
crucified Jesus was alive, both Lord and Christ. Some 
Hellenistic Jews complained that their widows were 
neglected, and so seven deacons were appointed to re- 
lieve the apostles of serving tables. It was Paul who 
emancipated the gospel from legalism and ceremonial 
observances, who proclaimed the reality of the union 
of a believer with Christ, symbolized by the ordinances 
of baptism and the Lord's Supper, and who had only 
the boundaries of the Roman empire as limits of 
his audience chamber. The characteristics of the 
early churches were their independence, equality of 
ministers, their deacons, regenerate church member- 
ship, and ordinances of baptism and the Lord's Sup- 
per. 

1 



2 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Influence of Environment 

The very genius of the early Christian movement 
was its plasticity, without even a guide book for 
many years except the Old Testament, which was grad- 
ually supplemented by the books of the New. Thus 
free to live, Christianity adjusted itself to its environ- 
ment and according to the Christian ideal reinter- 
preted in nobler form and higher content the Hellen- 
istic religions of redemption, the philosophic systems 
of speculation, and the worship of the defied em- 
perors. As examples, witness the influence on Chris- 
tianity of the dying-rising savior Gods of Hellenism, 
the Epicurean and Stoic philosophies, and the cult of 
the Caesars, especially Augustus, "offspring of a 
God." Because of environmental contacts Chris- 
tianity at length began to deviate from the early 
teachings of the apostles and emphasized pedo- or 
infant baptism, sacramentalism, ritualism, cere- 
monialism, and other "isms." Tried and purged by 
local and general persecutions, although able to sur- 
vive and increase rapidly, Christianity in the fourth 
century had become the religion of the state, for- 
mulated its creed, collected its canon, and in the Bishop 
of Rome had a claimant to succession from Peter. 

Baptist Views Before the Reformation 

The Roman Catholic Church appropriated to itself 
the wonderful organization and efficient administra- 
tion of the Empire and survived the downfall of that 
system. It is impossible to find in the more or less 
evangelical groups (Montanists, Novatians, Mani- 
chaeans, and Paulicians, Cathari, Bogomils, Albi- 



Introduction 



genses, and others) who remained apart from the 
Catholic Church, successors of the full primitive 
tradition in spite of the fact that all along some so- 
called heretics here and there held to the teachings of 
the New Testament in a purer form than did the pre- 
vailing Catholic Church. 

In the wake of the Crusades it is not impossible to 
see trained evangelical individuals arising who were 
protesting for themselves and their nations against 
the ecclesiastical institution. In France there were 
Peter de Bruys and Henry of Lausanne; in Germany 
was Evervin of Steinfield; in Italy, Arnold of Bres- 
cia; in Bohemia, Peter Chelcicky, besides precursors 
of the Reformation like Savonarola, Huss, and Wy- 
clif, and a host of Waldensians and Bohemian Breth- 
ren who were trying to restore the New Testament 
norm. 

Anabaptist Beginnings 

The Reformation came in the sixteenth century, 
when individuals began to place authority in the Scrip- 
tures rather than in the Catholic Church. The name 
Anabaptists (re-baptizers) or Baptists, as Charles V 
called them in 1535, was applied to all revolters from 
the Catholic Church and the equally intolerant Prot- 
estant groups. This popular epithet of opprobrium 
was more than words; it became fatal legislation, be- 
cause, as the Romanists charged, the Anabaptist 
heresy was dangerous, being ancient, universal, and 
blasphemous. Europe became red with blood that was 
shed by many Anabaptist martyrs, some of whom 
were chiliastic, socialistic, revolutionary, pious, mis- 



Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



guided, or fanatical people, but all of whom attempted 
to practice the customs and beliefs of first century 
Christianity, especially believers' baptism, a self-gov- 
erning group, liberty of conscience, and the practical 
teachings of the New Testament. 

Anabaptists Organized 

For a decade or more praying bands of "brethren," 
as the Anabaptists preferred to call themselves, had 
been in existence before they met in the house of Eal- 
thasar Hubmaier at Waldshut, Switzerland, in June, 
1524, to discuss their mutual problems. Their views 
had been derived in part at least from former per- 
secuted sects, especially the Waldenses. Two years 
later a conference was held at Augsburg at which be- 
lievers' baptism became a distinguishing belief. In 
the course of another year definite doctrinal state- 
ments and a system of ecclesiastical administration 
had been agreed upon. The fact that Balthasar Hub- 
maier, noted scholar, sometime professor of Theology 
at Ingolstadt (1512), Hans Denck, brilliant Humanist, 
and Conrad Grebel, a member of the "Erasmus circle," 
men who in ability and character have been compared 
favorably with Luther and Calvin, were the early 
leaders among the Anabaptists shows that the move- 
ment was of more than fanatical import. 

Swiss Anabaptists Scattered 

In Switzerland the Brethren criticized the Zurich 

City Council for believing in a state controlled church 
and infant baptism. As a result a public Disputation 
on Baptism was ordered for January 17, 1525. Grebel 



Introduction 



with Hubmaier, Felix Manz, and Brother Jorg, com- 
monly called "Blaurock," and Ludwig Hatzer main- 
tained the unscripturalness of infant baptism against 
Zwingli. The Council upheld Zwingli and enacted a 
law ordering all children to be baptized. But the 
Brethren instituted adult baptism, first Grebel bap- 
tizing (probably by affusion) Blaurock, and Blaurock 
baptizing some others. Later immersion was sub- 
stituted for pouring, and after Easter, Hubmaier was 
baptized at Waldshut by a banished Catholic priest. 
Whereupon, fines, imprisonments, threats, banishment, 
and death were deemed fitting punishments for the re- 
baptizers. Grebel died naturally some time after 
March, 1526; Manz was drowned by sentence of the 
Council at Zurich in 1527; Blaurock was publicly 
scourged, banished, and subsequently burned at the 
stake in the Tyrol in 1529 ; Hatzer, driven from Zurich, 
went to Strassburg where he was banished, and then 
to Constance where he was martyred; and Hubmaier, 
eloquent, zealous, pure and noble in life, though tor- 
tured, propagated the Anabaptist faith in Moravia 
where he had fled. Thus denied capable leadership in 
Switzerland, the cause fared ill among the cantons, al- 
though remnants of those Anabaptists who did not 
emigrate to America or settle in Germany can be found 
in Bern today. 

Anabaptist Confession of Faith 

By no means did the persecution accomplish its pur- 
pose of exterminating the rebaptizers, but rather 
"Anabaptism spread like a burning fever through all 
Germany; from Swabia and Switzerland, along the 



6 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Rhine to Holland and Friesland, from Bavaria, Middle 
Germany, Westphalia, and Saxony, as far as Holstein." 
The Confession of Faith of the Anabaptists was issued 
in February of 1527 in Schlatt, and the authorship of 
the seven articles whose ideas are shared in varying 
degrees by Baptists, Congregationalists, and Quakers 
is attributed to Michael Sajttler, formerly a monk who 
was martyred at Rothenberg. Among other things the 
Confession taught believers' baptism only; the Lord's 
Supper for those believers ; a self-governing congrega- 
tion, and that Christians were never to hold public of- 
fice or to take oaths, but were to obey the civil law. 
Yet the very liberty of conscience for which Anabap- 
tists contended when carried to its logical conclusion 
permitted all preachers of the doctrine to hold what- 
ever views they desired. So there were differing kinds 
of Anabaptists. 

Anabaptist Fanatics 

There was Denck, the mystic "Anabaptist Pope," 
who with Hatzer translated the prophetical books of 
the Hebrews, and Hans Hut who labelled himself 
"prophet" to declare Christ's reign on the earth after 
the Turks destroyed the Empire. Although Hub- 
maier with his eloquent sermons and busy pen assumed 
the role of defender of Anabaptist faith to offset this 
radical, Hut remained a vigorous apostle of his beliefs 
throughout south Germany and Austria until his sub- 
sequent imprisonment and death about 1529. 

The Anabaptist movement was rapidly assuming 
proportions that made it not only religious but social, 
political, and economic as well. Both Catholics and Lu- 



Introduction 



therans felt called upon to extirpate Anabaptism 
which became perilous to the ruling classes. Austria 
took the lead in punishing Anabaptists with death in 
1527 by a proclamation which was sent to the prov- 
inces of the Empire, and which resulted in the most 
frightful executions. But there were cities and dis- 
tricts of refuge that welcomed the Anabaptists be- 
cause on account of their industry and honesty they 
were profitable to the land proprietors. Nevertheless, 
pressure from higher authorities changed this atti- 
tude because of some outbursts of radical chiliasm, 
which was not typical of Anabaptists as a group. 

Germany had not forgotten the chiliasm of those 
prophets of Zwickau, Thomas Munzer and Nicholas 
Storch, whose efforts at Wittenberg were only neg- 
atived by the violent denunciations of Luther, who 
left his "captivity" to check them. Although those 
prophets were not Anabaptists, the Anabaptist move- 
ment subsequently had enough radicals associated with 
it to stir up discontent among the underprivileged 
classes. 

Melchior Hofmann was an example of these fanatics. 
He was blameless in life, pure, and peaceable, but 
zealous, mystical, and chiliastic. For him Strass- 
burg was to be the New Jerusalem, and he, the prophet 
there who should be imprisoned for six months; and 
then the end of the age would come in 1533. After 
years of spreading his beliefs in Friesland, the Nether- 
lands, Westphalia, and the lower Rhein region he went 
to Strassburg to fulfill his prophecy only to remain 
in prison until his death, ten years later. Hofmann's 
influential Dutch disciple was Jan Matthys, a baker 

Sig.— 2 



8 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

of Harlem, who announced himself Enoch and wantonly 
spread his propaganda. 

Conflicts in Munster 

In Munster the educated young evangelist, Ber- 
nard Rothmann, who had won that Catholic strong- 
hold for Lutheranism, was baptized by disciples of Jan 
Matthys. Soon Matthys came to town in person, af- 
ter being preceded by John of Leyden and others. Mat- 
thys announced that Munster had been revealed as the 
New Jerusalem instead of Strassburg ; the Kingdom of 
God in Munster was set up. Munster became a city 
of refuge for radicals. All who did not acquiesce in 
that radicalism were driven out. In resisting the 
Bishop and his followers, Matthys was slain. John 
of Leyden was made king, but Catholics and Lutherans 
united to rid the city of Anabaptism which had be- 
come communistic and polygamous with a reign of ter- 
ror. The city was captured, June 24, 1535, and the 
surviving Anabaptists were tortured and killed. The 
iron cages, in which the leaders were suspended from 
the tower of the Church of St. Lambert to die of star- 
vation and exposure, still remain there as a terrible 
reminder. 

Menno and Mennonites 

In consequence of that event the Anabaptist move- 
ment was to be found elsewhere as a peaceful enter- 
prise under a new name. Menno Simons (1496-7 — 
1561) of Witmason, Friesland, from whom the pres- 
ent body of Mennonites is named, was the leader. As 
a Catholic priest Simons became interested in Protes- 



Introduction 



tantism and withdrew from the Catholic Church in 
1536 as a culmination of his surprise and shock that 
Sicke Frierichs, an Anabaptist, had been martyred in 
1531 because of his theological views. Working quiet- 
ly for fully a quarter of a century, Menno gathered the 
scattered Anabaptists into associations and made new 
converts throughout north Europe. He taught non- 
resistance and an independent church with a baptized, 
regenerate membership. Because of the degree of 
tolerance in the Netherlands and the character of this 
leader the followers of Menno grew into a strong or- 
ganization. Dissension and new theological views 
have come with the years, but the Mennonites, con- 
tinuing the Anabaptists, today are essentially the same 
as they were in the sixteenth century, precursors of 
the modern Baptists. 



CHAPTER II 

ENGLISH BAPTISTS 

Prior to the seventeenth century there were con- 
gregations in London which had separated themselves 
from the national Church of England and were called 
Separatist congregations; but there is no valid his- 
torical basis for designating any of them as a Baptist 
church. As a matter of fact the first Baptist Church 
in England had its beginning in Holland and was defi- 
nitely influenced by the Mennonites. 

Separatists in Holland 

There were two companies of Separatists in Hol- 
land. Beginning in 1593 after persecutions had driven 
English dissenters into exile, one company banded 
themselves together in Amsterdam with Francis John- 
son as pastor. The Baptists are concerned primarily 
with the second of the two companies of Separatists, 
who emigrated to Holland from Gainsborough. It is 
affirmed that at first this company augmented the first 
Separatists, 1 and the subsequent controversy seems to 
substantiate the assertion. 



1. Crosby, History of the English Baptists, i, 91f. and 265f., 
quoted in Benedict, History of the Baptists (1848), 328. 

10. 



English Baptists 11 



John Smyth 

John Smyth, who had the master's degree from Cam- 
bridge University, and who formerly belonged to the 
established church but later was pastor of the Sep- 
aratist group in Gainsborough (1602), went to Amster- 
dam with his congregation about 1606. Smyth had 
rather well-defined ideas of the supremacy of the Scrip- 
tures for the guidance of faith and practice and so 
engaged in controversy with the older body of Sep- 
aratists in Holland. Smyth rejected infant baptism. 
He is called the "se-baptist" because he baptized him- 
self, presumably by pouring ; he then baptized Thomas 
Helwys and his thirty-seven other followers because 
their former church connection was with "a false 
church." This was in 1609. 

Smyth, however, became dissatisfied with se-bap- 
tism and with a considerable company, numbering 
thirty-two persons, made application to join the Men- 
nonite church. Nevertheless, Thomas Helwys and 
John Murton, the two leaders of Smyth's movement, 
were satisfied enough with their baptism to caution 
the Mennonite brethren not to grant this request. 
Smyth's group kept losing numbers and was unas- 
sociated with the Mennonites when Smyth died in 
1612. 

First Baptist Church in England 

Helwys and then Murton were leaders of many 
like-minded persons who went back to London in 1611 
and planted the first Baptist church of Englishmen on 
English soil. Both Helwys and Smith were clear in 
their pronouncement of the Baptist tenets of liberty 



12 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

of conscience, the duty of following practices of New 
Testament churches, and the Scriptural authority for 
the churches, issued in their long Confession of Faith 
in 1611. Those Baptists held to the general atonement 
for all men, and hence were the beginning of the Gen- 
eral Baptists. By 1626 when the General Baptists 
were on friendly terms with the Mennonites, there were 
five churches with about one hundred fifty members. 
In 1644 the churches had increased to at least forty- 
seven. 

General and Particular Baptists 

There were tw T o main theological distinctions 
among the English Baptists until their union in 1891. 
The General or Arminian Baptists were one company; 
the Particular or Calvinistic Baptists were the other. 

The Calvinistic company grew out of the Separatist 
church of Henry Jacob in London in 1616. After 
serving the church eight years, Jacob emigrated 
to Virginia and was succeeded by John Lathrop who 
later emigrated to New England, but who stayed in 
England long enough to see the original church the 
mother of the English Independents (Congrega- 
tionalists) and of the Particular Baptists. In 1633 a 
group of seventeen persons, some of whom held Bap- 
tist views, peaceably withdrew from Lathrop's church. 
They were reinforced with Anabaptists during the 
pastorate of John Spilsbury, and before long the en- 
tire church was Baptist, adopting immersion as the 
mode of administration. This church held to the atone- 
ment for the elect only and hence was the beginning 
of the Particular Baptists. 



English Baptists 13 



The records of the church show that it was divided 
by mutual consent in 1640. Four years later seven 
Particular Baptist churches had been peaceably set 
apart. These united in October, 1644, and adopted a 
confession of Faith of fifty articles with signers like 
the wealthy merchant-preacher, William Kiffen, and 
the learned Hanserd Knollys. 1 This document is sig- 
nificant primarily in stating believers' baptism by im- 
mersion, which all Baptists seem to have adopted in 
the course of a decade, and in advocating religious lib- 
erty as tenets of the denomination, the first official 
declaration of this doctrine by any body of Christians. 

Baptists Prosper in Political Turmoil 

Baptists were increasing in numbers and in pres- 
tige because England with her Stuarts had enough 
political and economic trouble without giving much 
attention to dissenters. In the army there were Bap- 
tist soldiers and officers who spread the gospel in Ire- 
land and Scotland. John Myles founded a church in 
Wales at Swansea in 1649, and to Vavasor Powell 
(1617-1670) belongs the credit for churches multiply- 
ing among Welchmen during the Commonwealth. Pow- 
ell was of distinguished family and received the high- 
est education, but he left the Church of England to 
spread the gospel among the lowly. With zeal and 
eloquence he preached throughout the country and 
was called "the Whitfield of Wales." The first associa- 
tion of Particular Baptists, the Somerset, 1653, soon 



1. There were several editions. The second was signed 
by the French Particular Baptists. 



14 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

disappeared, but the Midland, 1655, sprang up to re- 
main to this day. 

As a group, Baptists were loyal to Cromwell though 
some were opposed to making him king; and it is 
stated that one of them, General Thomas Harrison, 
second in command to Cromwell, and representing the 
army, prevented the great Protector from carrying 
out his ambitious purpose. During the reign of Charles 
II the many imprisonments of John Bunyan, author of 
Pilgrim's Progress and one of the most famous Bap- 
tists of all time, are typical of the persecutions of the 
Baptists arising from the passing in quick succession 
of the Act of Uniformity (1662), the Conventicle Act 
(1663), the Five Mile Act (1665), and the Test Act 
(1673). 

Other Baptist Bodies 

Other bodies formed organizations. The Seventh 
Day Baptists were begun in 1676, and the Six-Principle 
Baptists, emphasizing the laying on of hands as found 
in Hebrews 6:1, 2, were numerous enough in 1690 to 
form an association. The General Baptists had or- 
ganized their General Assembly by 1671, which body 
became more than advisory, claiming authority to set- 
tle questions of conduct and belief, and thus negatived 
the power of the local church. Their Confession was 
issued in 1678, a year after the Particular churches 
gave their Confession which was a modified form of 
the Westminster Confession (Presbyterian, 1647), 
and which was again adopted by them in 1689. This 
document remains the basis of the English Con- 
fessions as well as the doctrinal statement approved 
by most Southern Baptists. 



English Baptists 15 



Early Customs 

Among Baptists the custom of men and women sit- 
ting on opposite sides of the church building, especially 
in rural communities, dates back to the seventeenth 
century. Of course, Baptists now usually do not follow 
the Quaker garb, or fasting, foot washing, laying on 
of hands, love feasts before the Lord's Supper, and 
meddlesome inquiry into personal affairs of members 
as practiced by these early Baptists. 

Prosperity Retards Growth 

As Bacon had testified more than a half century be- 
fore that "prosperity doth best discover vice, but ad- 
versity doth best discover virtue," so it was true that 
with the Act of Toleration of 1689 the denomination 
began to recede from its former developing position. 
Since Baptists had gained in part the liberty which 
had helped call them forth, evils grew among them. 
In the eighteenth century anti-Trinitarian ideas 
spread among the General Baptists, and by 1750 the 
greater number of churches had become Unitarian. 
Among the Particular Baptists hyper-Calvinism hin- 
dered the cause especially as explained by John Brine 
and John Dill, both men of long pastorates, deep piety, 
and abiding influence. Doctor Dill was markedly the 
most learned of the Baptists, and in his Body of Di- 
vinity, 1769, and other writings his views on the doc- 
trine of election that destroyed evangelism were ex- 
pressed. His doctrine of predestination differed little 
from fatalism and taught that God would save the 
elect without human invitation to the sinner. More- 
over, Baptists declined not only because of the 



16 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

changed views relative to doctrinal tenets but be- 
cause of the spiritual lethargy with its ration- 
alistic Deism and the moral decay of the whole social 
order. 

The Wesleyan Revival 

Happily for the furtherance of religion John and 
Charles Wesley and George Whitfield, all of the Holy 
Club of Oxford, began a revival of religion that stirred 
the hearts of two continents. John Wesley tells of 
his conversion at a Moravian meeting in 1738: "I felt 
my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in 
Christ, Christ alone, for salvation." He began again 
to preach, but now he was excluded from the pulpits of 
the Church of England. With marvellous effect he 
preached to crowds in the fields. During the revival 
emotional experiences were transmitted through the 
songs of Charles Wesley and by the preaching of John 
Wesley and of Whitfield who, it was said, could make 
his hearers weep or tremble by his varied utterances 
of the word, Mesopotamia. 1 All classes were fervently 
exercised. The intensity of the movement, with its 
corresponding emphasis on the worth of an individual, 
gave rise to the popular Methodist denomination, trans- 
formed all denominations from worldliness and indif- 
ference to spiritual life and activity and at the same 
time had social implications which at length were ex- 
pressed in reforms like the abolition of slavery in Ja- 
maica and America and in missionary endeavors 
throughout the world. 



1. Tracey, The Great Awakening, 45n. 



English Baptists 17 



General Baptists and Dan Taylor 

Dan Taylor, a convert of this revival, though an un- 
educated miner, became the leading spirit among the 
General Baptists, reviving the work in 1770 by the 
formal organization of "The General Assembly of the 
Free Grace General Baptists," commonly referred to 
as the New Connexion. To his indefatigable labors as 
home missionary, principal of their academy, and 
editor of their magazine is largely due the success of 
the General Baptists. At the age of seventy-eight he 
died in 1816, the year that the General Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society was founded. 

Particular Baptists 

Because of the revival the Particular Baptists 
spread to Scotland where they became firmly estab- 
lished in 1750 first in Keiss, in Carthenshire, and then 
in Edinburgh, 1765, and Glasgow, 1768. Churches 
multiplied there and elsewhere, due in no small degree 
to two brothers, Robert and James Alexander Haldane. 
The Baptist Home Mission Society was organized in 
1779 to do distinctive home mission work. While pas- 
tor of the church at Kettering, Andrew Fuller so in- 
fluenced the thinking of the Particular Baptists of his 
day that his mild form of Calvinism practically became 
the rich heritage of all Baptists. His writings are still 
extant abroad and in this country. He also traveled 
extensively as secretary of the newly formed Baptist 
Missionary Society. 

Baptist Missionary Society and William Carey 

The Baptist Missionary Society was the first or- 
ganization to popularize missions to non-Christians 



18 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

with a supporting constituency at the home base. Wil- 
liam Carey was the father of this modern missionary 
idea. In 1783 he had been baptized in the Neu River 
by John Ryland who wrote in his diary: "This day 
baptized a poor journeyman shoemaker." He became 
a member of the church at Olney, John Sutcliffe, min- 
ister, felt called to preach, and in 1787 was ordained 
for the pastorate at Moulton at a yearly salary of 
seventy-five dollars. With a wife and two children 
Carey was forced to continue his trade while he 
preached. He studied while he worked, mastering 
five languages and becoming acquainted with the geog- 
raphy of non-Christian lands through maps and 
Cook's Voyages. His thoughts on the duty of evan- 
gelizing the world had taken such shape that he was 
requested to publish his manuscript on "An Inquiry 
Into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for 
the Conversion of the Heathen." Shortly afterwards 
he preached at the association in Nottingham, May 30, 
1792, from Isaiah 44:2, 3, using the famous subject, 
"Expect Great Things from God; Attempt Great 
Things for God." 

William Carey, the Missionary 

Nevertheless, Baptists might have had no tangible 
effects of this concern for missions had not Carey 
prodded Andrew Fuller to do something. So on 
October 2, 1792, twelve men met in the parlor of Mrs. 
Beeby Wallis in Kettering, and formed the Baptist 
Missionary Society, subscribing 13£, 2s and 6d for 
missions. In June, 1793, Carey and John Thomas 
sailed for India. Serampore finally became the station 



English Baptists 19 



of the mission, from time to time increased by as- 
sociates from home. Carey devoted his life primarily 
to Scripture translations into the Indian dialects and be- 
fore long had rendered the Scriptures into forty-four 
dialects. Because he had become one of the great 
oriental scholars, Carey was made Professor of Bengali 
at the College of Fort William, Calcutta. Full of years 
and of honor, Carey died in 1834, the father of modern 
missions. The society which he was instrumental in 
founding now supports nearly two hundred European 
missionaries in India (1793), Ceylon (1812), the West 
Indies (1813), China (1859), and the Congo (1877). 

Great Preachers 

The cause of missions and the entire Baptist group' 
were strengthened by their great preachers. Some of 
the best known were Robert Hall, pulpit orator, 
Alexander McLaren, expounder of the Scriptures, John 
Clifford, polished scholar, and Charles Haddon Spur- 
geon, all outstanding theologians as well as preachers. 

Charles Haddon Spurgeon 

From his first sermon in the historic Southwark 
Church, London, in 1853, until his death there Charles 
Haddon Spurgeon (1834-1892) wrought a marvellous 
and ever widening work. Only two hundred people 
heard his first message at Southwark, but at the 
height of his popularity he had a membership of over 
five thousand who worshipped in the Metropolitan 
Tabernacle, built by the congregation in 1861. Through 
the press his sermons reached fully a half million more 



20 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

people. Spurgeon was a philanthropist, the founder of 
the Stockwell orphanages which have helped over five 
hundred children annually for sixty-five years. Al- 
though his formal education was not above our high 
school, he evinced great interest in the educational 
advancement of needy pastors through his monthly 
magazine and a Colportage Association, providing free 
gifts of books for ministers, and by establishing Pas- 
tor's College for ministers in 1856. 

Ministerial Education 

Difficulty in educating Baptist ministers had been 
early experienced. The national universities were 
closed against dissenters ; so competent ministers of- 
ten instructed clerical candidates. Some ministers 
were educated at Scottish universities by Dr. Ward's 
Trust Fund (1754), but the real solution of the prob- 
lem was Baptist schools. Bristol College, 1770, was 
the oldest. Other theological seminaries, called "col- 
leges" by the English, are at Midland, Rawdon, Re- 
gents' Park, Manchester, Cardiff, Bangor, Glasgow, 
and Dublin. Their total enrollment hardly exceeds 
two hundred. 

Spurgeon and Baptist Doctrine 

Spurgeon was distinguished not only as a preacher, 
philanthropist, and educator, but as a liberal inter- 
preter of Baptist doctrine. Admission to his communion 
service was by ticket, issued to applicants from evan- 
gelical churches who were expected to join the Tab- 
ernacle should they desire the courtesy of communion 



English Baptists 21 



more than three months. This position was strikingly- 
contrasted with the avowedly open communion of John 
Bunyan and Robert Hall. Mixed memberships also 
characterized some of the Baptist churches. 

Increasing Union Among Baptists 

More and more the distinctions between General 
and Particular Baptists were disappearing, and, as has 
been mentioned, the two bodies were united in 1891. 
There was already a multiplicity of Baptist organiza- 
tions. At the instance of Joseph Ivimey, Baptist his- 
torian, a Baptist Union was begun in London in 1812 
"to direct the public meetings of the various societies." 1 
At the Union in 1832, 926 churches, 768 ministers be- 
sides 120 New Connexion churches and 100 pastors 
were reported. Both the General and Particular Bap- 
tists united to administer their missionary and be- 
nevolent enterprises through the Baptist Union. There 
was also the Home Mission Society (1779) which 
united in 1865 with the Irish Missionary Society 
(1814) to form the British and Irish Baptist Home 
Mission Society since merged with the Baptist Union 
for Great Britain and Ireland which was incorporated 
in 1890. 

Another organization which remains to this day 
had charge of the matter of Bible translation. A need 
for the Scriptures in Wales and elsewhere prompted 
a number of Christians through the labor of Joseph 
Hughes of Battersea to meet in 1804 and form the 



1. See Green, "English and Scotch Baptists during the 
Nineteenth Century" in Newman, A Century of Baptist 
Achievement, 37, 40f. 



22 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

British and Foreign Bible Society, forerunner of all 
similar organizations. Hughes was a Baptist, but his 
non-denominational Society had aided the work of 
Carey. The Society, however, refused the appeal to 
aid in printing a revised edition of Carey's Bengali 
Bible which translated the Greek word baptizo cor- 
rectly and definitely "immerse" unless the translation 
of that word be changed so as to be "unobjectionable" 
to other denominations. No satisfactory reply was 
given to the protests of the Baptists, and so on March 
24, 1840, they formed the Bible Translation Society. 

Baptists in the Colonies 

English Baptists have followed the English Jack 
and enroll among their number prominent men in all 
walks of life, not only in the countries named but in 
Canada since 1763 at Yarmouth and Horton; in Aus- 
tralasia at Sidney, 1834, Melbourne, 1845, Moreton 
Bay, 1856, and Adelaide, 1861; and in New Zealand, 
1854. 

In Canada 

Canadian Baptists enroll more communicants than 
any of the other English domains. The Maritime 
Provinces, the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec and 
the Western Provinces are the divisions of their op- 
erations. Generally the pioneer preachers were 
American colonists although the earliest Baptist 
preacher around Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, seems to 
be Andres who came from Holland in 1752, and 
around Ottawa they were converts of the Haldanes 



English Baptists 23 



of Scotland. Swiss and English Baptists were also 
represented. Among the early churches the Horton, 
reestablished in 1778, and the Haldimand, 1798, have 
continued as fruitful mothers. Around the former 
church developed the Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick Association in 1800, and around the latter grew 
the Thurlow (later Haldimand) Association in 1803. 
As the Baptists have multiplied they have formed 
other groups. 

Boards, Schools, Conventions 

The Association of Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick began to discuss education in 1828, the outgrowth 
of which has been Horton Academy and Acadia Uni- 
versity. These schools are sponsored by the Baptist 
Convention, embracing these two provinces and Prince 
Edward Island, which has continued since 1846 for the 
Maritime Provinces and has been known since 1906 
as the United Baptist Convention. The interest in 
missions of its constituents dates back to 1815 and now 
is expressed in a home and a foreign board for the 
Convention. 

The Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec was 
formed in 1888 and continues the previously existing 
boards of Home Missions, Ministerial Superannuation, 
Foreign Missions, Church Edifice and Publication. The 
Board of Religious Education and of the Western Mis- 
sion has been added. One of the features of this Con- 
vention is the Grande Ligne Mission among the French 
Catholics. The Baptists have labored there since 1848 
with Madame Feller and M. Roussy, whose Institute 
and Memorial Church stand as romantic challenges of 

Sig.— 3 



24 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



heroic spirits. Woodstock Academy, McMaster Uni- 
versity, and Moulten (woman's) College are the edu- 
cational projects of this convention. 

Soon after organization the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society began work in the Western Provinces 
which in 1907 organized the Baptist Convention of 
Western Canada by the consolidation of the earlier 
convention of Manitoba and the Northwest (1884) and 
of British Columbia (1897). Beginning with 1909 
that body has become the Baptist Union of Western 
Canada. All of these organizations have thriving 
women's and young people's organizations. 

According to the British Baptist Year Book for 1930 
there are 1,283 churches, 821 ministers, and 142,834 
members in Canada and 3,165 churches, 2,885 min- 
isters, and 406,954 members in the British Isles. This 
number totals practically one British Baptist for sev- 
enteen members of the entire denomination. Vedder 
suggests that this relatively small number of com- 
municants is attributable to the fact that English Bap- 
tists have not been strict doctrinarians. No one at- 
tempts to gainsay that Englishmen interpret Baptist 
doctrine quite liberally, but the land where Baptist 
progress has become a popular movement has been 
America where the democratic governmental environ- 
ment has been conducive to Baptist growth. 



CHAPTER III 

BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA 

Roger Williams 

Roger Williams was typical of the early Baptists of 
the colonies, who had no status but rather a very pre- 
carious existence in colonial times. He had no con- 
nection with English Baptists and, after obtaining 
the B. A. degree from Cambridge University in 1627 
at twenty-seven years of age, became a dis- 
senter and left England for a place more con- 
ducive to his self-development. He landed in 
Boston in 1631 and was soon the pastor of 
the church at Salem whence he went to Plym- 
outh and back again to Salem. The New England 
theocracy was not to his liking, and he was banished 
in 1635 presumably for advocating liberty of con- 
science. Undaunted by dangers and a severe winter 
he founded Providence in what is now the State of 
Rhode Island where religious liberty was first pro- 
claimed to the world in an official state document. 

First Baptist Church in America 

In March of 1639 Roger Williams was baptized by 
Ezekiel Holliman, a former member of the Salem 
Church, and Williams in turn baptized ten others. This 

25 



26 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



was the beginning of the first Baptist church in the 
colonies. Probably this church organization was no 
more stable than its founder, who, though continuing 
in friendly relations with the Baptists, soon afterwards 
became unconnected with any religious group and 
ended his life as a "seeker," being in doubt as to 
whether a proper administrator of baptism could be 
found, but not as to immersion of believers. 

The withdrawal of Williams undoubtedly weakened 
the church, which nevertheless continued its existence 
a number of years. Controversy over the laying on 
of hands and the doctrines of the General Baptists, 
introduced by William Wickenden, Chad Brown, and 
Gregory Dexter, divided the church in 1652. There 
are no existing church records beyond 1775 although 
the subsequent development of the church after the 
division seems to be on this wise. One group under 
Thomas Olney, successor to Williams, became extinct 
about 1720. The majority with Wickenden became 
a Six-Principle church, insisting on the rite of laying 
on of hands, but finally adopted Calvinism in 1771 un- 
der the influence of President James Manning. It is 
now known as the First Baptist Church of Providence. 
The Six-Principle minority remains apart. 

John Clark and the Newport Church 

The First Baptist Church of Providence had a rival 
for priority in the Baptist church at Newport, Rhode 
Island, founded by John Clarke probably before 1644. 
Among the leaders of this congregation until his death 
in 1696 was Mark Lukar, a seceder from the church of 
Spilsbury. Influenced by the division of doctrinal 



Beginnings in America 27 

opinion in the Providence Church, a controversy arose 
in the Newport church about 1655 which resulted in 
the organization of a Six-Principle church. Efforts to 
project the influence of the Newport Church into 
Massachusetts had been checked at Seekonk in 1649 
and at Lynn in 1651. These failures and the suffer- 
ings from the Massachusetts authorities are set forth 
in "111 News from New England," written in England 
while Clarke was there on business for the colony. His 
labors in obtaining a charter for Rhode Island, where 
he became deputy governor, easily distinguished him 
as the leading Baptist of New England, though not as 
well-known as Roger Williams. John Clarke remained 
pastor until his death in 1676. 

Early Massachusetts Baptists 

In Massachusetts, Henry Dunster, A. M., the first 
president of Harvard College, after twelve years of 
popular and successful administration, was forced to 
resign the presidency because he held to believers' 
baptism only, and Obadiah Holmes, Clarke's successor, 
was "well-whipped" at Lynn for holding the same 
views and for preaching the gospel. Yet John Myles 
of Wales came to Massachusetts with many members 
from his church and settled in Rehoboth in 1663. Four 
years later they moved to their grant of land on the 
frontier of Rhode Island, which they named Swansea 
in memory of the home church. This church exists to- 
day. It was Calvinistic while an Arminian Swansea 
Church began in 1685, and a Six-Principle church from 
the Calvinistic body, in 1693. The First Baptist Church 
of Boston was organized, May 28, 1665, with seven men 



28 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



and two women in the home of Thomas Gould, a min- 
ister who had been holding services in his own house 
in Boston for several years. Although the Colony- 
was divided in sentiment over adopting the Half-way 
Covenant, which let down to some extent the strict re- 
quirements for membership in the Puritan churches 
and so for citizenship, they were united in insisting 
that the Baptists "desist" from their services, but 
the most severe punishment did not thwart them. By 
February, 1679, they had completed a suitable frame 
meeting house which the city authorities immediately 
ordered closed. This order was enforced only one 
Sunday. Two churches were formed in Massachusetts 
among the Indians by 1694, one at Martha's Vine- 
yard and the other on Nantucket Island. John Tack- 
amason was the first Indian Baptist pastor of the for- 
mer. 

First Connecticut and New York Churches 

Only here and there was to be found a Baptist 
preacher, for the denomination numbered only a few 
hundred in the seventeenth century. The first Bap- 
tists in Connecticut were from Rhode Island, locating 
a Six-Principle church at Groton in 1705. There fol- 
lowed Calvinistic churches at New London (1710) and 
Wallingford (1731). William Wickenden was the first 
Baptist preacher in New York City, but a church was 
not begun there until 1714 through the labors of Val- 
entine Wightman, who had planted the work in Con- 
necticut. The church at Oyster Bay, Long Island, fol- 
lowed in 1724. 



Beginnings in America 29 

In Pennsylvania and New Jersey 

The Quaker colonies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
and Delaware saw the greatest development of the co- 
lonial Baptists because of their religious liberty. In 
Pennsylvania, Baptist beginnings were made at Cold 
Spring by Thomas Dungan in 1684. Before this church 
became extinct Lower Dublin was organized at Penne- 
peck in 1688. The First Church, Philadelphia, was 
organized in 1689, but the members remained a part 
of the Lower Dublin Church until 1746. The church 
known as the Welch Tract Church began in Pem- 
brokeshire, Wales, in 1701, and that year came to 
Pennsylvania in a body. Baptists had been attracted 
to New Jersey since 1660, organizing churches in 
rapid succession at Middleton (1688), Piscataway 
(1689), and Cohansey (1690). 

Philadelphia Association 

Baptist interests centered around Philadelphia, the 
religious melting pot of the colonies in the very heart 
of things. Almost from the beginning of Baptists 
there the churches had met together in general meet- 
ings which became the Philadelphia Association in 
1707. When that body adopted its Confession in 1742, 
the Calvinism of that statement became one of its 
gifts to the American churches of the Baptist per- 
suasion. In nearly every ramification of Baptist de- 
velopment has the widening influence of this first 
American Baptist Association been felt. 



30 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Beginnings in the South 

The Baptists in the South were weak. The be- 
ginnings of the sect were due to settlers from Eng- 
land and New England. South Carolina early received 
both classes of these settlers, one company from 
Somersetshire, led by Joseph Blake, brother of Crom- 
well's admiral, and another, from Maine, by William 
Screven, organizer of the Baptist church of Kittery. 
To escape persecution in Maine, then a province of the 
Massachusetts Colony, this latter group migrated to 
the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina, and Scre- 
ven reorganized his church there in 1684. Migrants 
from England introduced the Baptist cause in eastern 
Virginia in 1714, and a generation later Baptist set- 
tlers went from Maryland to Frederick County, Vir- 
ginia. A Baptist church in North Carolina was formed 
in Chowan County in 1727. It is estimated that be- 
fore the Great Awakening, about 1740, hardly five 
hundred people were Baptist, and that they had only 
forty churches in the North and seven in the South, 
divided into Calvinistic, Arminian, Six-Principle, and 
Seventh Day Baptists. 

The Great Awakening 

The colonies were ready for spiritual awakening. 

Beginning with the powerful Jonathan Edwards at 
Northampton, Massachusetts, and electrified by the 
eloquence of Whitfield and others, there was a pro- 
found spiritual reaction from the indifference and 
worldliness of the churches. In the excitement of 
the meetings the people jerked and shouted and 



Beginnings in America 31 

swooned because their sins were forgiven. Lo- 
renzo Dow adds: "I have seen all denominations of re- 
ligion exercised with the jerks, gentleman and lady, 
black and white, young and old, without exception." 

Baptists and the Great Awakening 

At first the Baptists took no part in the Awaken- 
ing partly because of their theological beliefs. Some 
preferred to hold aloof as the "Regulars," but others, 
labelling themselves "New Lights" or "Separates," 
participated in the revival. Because of this participa- 
tion and the dissension respecting the revival among 
the Congregationalists, Baptists became one of the 
popular denominations with distinguished leaders and 
increased numbers. There was Isaac Backus (1724- 
1806) who came to the Baptists from the Congrega- 
tionalists and used his great power as pastor, evangel- 
ist, historian, and spokesman of religious liberty, and 
Hezekiah Smith (1737-1805), evangelist and pastor 
who spread the opinions of the Philadelphia Associa- 
tion by extensive journeys through the South, and 
from his pastorate in Haverhill, Massachusetts, 
through northern New England. A man of wide in- 
terests, of boundless energy and of fine judgment was 
he. By 1768 there were 30 Baptist churches in Mas- 
sachusetts, 12 in Connecticut, and 36 in Rhode Island 
where the Warren Association had been formed at 
Warren in 1767. There was a Baptist church formed at 
Newton, New Hampshire, and at Groton, Maine, and 
later at Guilford, Vermont. The first known instance of 
a Negro as a Baptist was during the Awakening in con- 
nection with the Newton, Rhode Island, Church where 



Ihort History of the Baptist Denomination 



Quassey was one of the fifty-one constituent mem- 
bers in 1743. x The Philadelphia Association extended 
its usefulness from Virginia to New England, enroll- 
ing in all 32 churches and 3392 members. 

Early Schools 

The numerical increase of Baptists led to the es- 
tablishment of schools to send forth leaders for the 
churches. An academy was started at Hopewell, New 
Jersey, by Isaac Eaton in 1756 and continued eleven 
years. Others followed. Graduates of this school in- 
clude James Manning and Hezekiah Smith, the first 
president and financial agent respectively of what has 
become Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. 
Morgan Edwards (1772-1795), recruited from England 
for the Philadelphia church and later perpetuator of 
the sources of denominational history in his volumes 
of Materials toward a History of the Baptists, first 
suggested the idea of a Baptist college to the Phila- 
delphia Association. The result was the founding of 
Rhode Island College which received her charter in 
1764 and was later, in 1804, named Brown University. 
Baptists have since controlled the institution, but 
Quakers, Congregationalists, and Episcopalians have 
shared in its development as stipulated in the char- 
ter. 

Early Associations in the South 

Some New Lights from New England settled in Vir- 
ginia with Shubal Stearns and Daniel Marshall, as lead- 



1. Edwards, Materials toward a History of the Baptists 
in Rhode Island, iv, 344f., 346. 



Beginnings in America 33 

ers. The Separate churches which they started were 
constantly opposed by the Regulars until the two fac- 
tions reached a working agreement as they did in 
the United Baptist Church of Christ in 1787. Other 
Baptists visited the South and established churches 
there; so there were twenty-four associations 
of Baptist churches in the South, east of the 
Alleghanies in the eighteenth century, the earliest 
being the Charleston, South Carolina, (1751), the 
Sandy Creek, North Carolina, (1758), the Kehukee, 
North Carolina, (1765), and the Ketockton, Virginia, 
(1766). 

Baptists and the Revolution 

Baptists everywhere espoused the cause of the col- 
onies during the American Revolution. Whether 
making sentiment for the grievances of the colonies 
like Oliver Hart and Richard Furman, Sr., or bear- 
ing arms like David Barrow, or recruiting a company 
like Elder McClanahan, or serving as chaplain like 
Hezekiah Smith, Baptists spread their doctrine of the 
disestablishment of a state church. The service to 
the nation of the New England and especially Vir- 
ginia Separates in promoting civil and religious lib- 
erty won a victory for the denomination, and it is 
not surprising that many believed that Baptists in- 
fluenced the Federal Constitution which removed all 
ecclesiastical disabilities from the land. 

Baptists and the Negro 

It may be that because of this Negroes who were 
slaves could reason that the hope of their freedom lay 



34 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

with the Baptists. Probably the appeal to the com- 
mon people by the Baptists, their simplicity of organi- 
zation, inexpensiveness of operation, and ceremonial 
of baptism appealed to the African. It was easy for 
the Negro to adjust his religion to the new faith. 
Christianity met all the tests of his religious nature in 
providing help in his miserable slave state, a spirit- 
ual, though otherworldly explanation of all things, and 
an emotional experience hitherto unfelt. As a matter 
of fact, the emotionalism of the white people sur- 
passed anything that Negroes have since attained, 1 but 
the latter without schools until recently have allowed 
the emotional element to dominate their religious life. 
So the Baptists were confronted with the problems of 
the Negro as a church member with all of the respon- 
sibility of conversion, discipline, and instruction. 

Negroes in White Churches. 

Negroes not only became constituent members of a 
number of Baptist churches but joined the churches 
after they were constituted. Robert Stevens was a 
member of the First Church, Providence, some time 
before 1762, and previous to the American Revolu- 
tion there were eighteen other such members. The 
First Church, Boston, received Negroes as early as 
1772. In the South some Negroes formed a Look-out 
Committee to promote "love, obedience and fear" 
among the slaves, to "cite" disorderly Negro members 
and often non-members before the church, and to be 



1. See, A Brief Narrative of the Revival of Religion in 
Virginia, 12f. 



Beginnings in America 35 

a kind of "deacon" to keep an eye on the black mem- 
bers of the church and community. 

Early Negro Preachers 

Negroes began to exhort soon after conversion. The 
religious leaders were already on the plantations as 
survivals of the African tribal priests, and these men 
became the earliest apostles of comfort, unification, 
and inspiration. There were different types of 
preachers then as now. In Virginia alone there were 
at least two Negro pastors of white churches. William 
Lemon, a "lively and affecting" man of color was pas- 
tor of the church at Gloucester or Pettsworth, some- 
times called Ware. He represented the church in the 
Dover Association on several occasions, from 1797 to 
1803. x Jacob Bishop, an itinerant preacher at Magotty 
Bay Church, Northampton County, was another. His 
preaching around Norfolk attracted such attention 
that he was called to the Baptist church in Ports- 
mouth. 2 It was to be expected that the earliest Negro 
preachers and churches would arise in the South and 
in the rural districts. 

First Negro Churches 

The mother of Negro Baptist beginnings in South 
Carolina, Georgia, Canada, Africa, and the West In- 
dies is traced to the Silver Bluff Church, Aiken County, 
South Carolina, twelve miles from Augusta, Georgia. 
It was organized on the estate of Mr. George Galphin 



1. Minutes Dover Baptist Association, 1797-1804. 

2. Semple, 355. 



36 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

about 1773. George Liele, a pioneer Negro, and Elder 
Palmer, a white pastor, were preachers in those parts. 
At one meeting there were eight converts among whom 
was David George who "had the whole management, 
and used to preach among them" as the Revolution 
drew on. Jesse Peters (Galphin) was also of this 
church. 

In Nova Scotia 

Mr. Galphin was a British sympathizer and left 
home when he thought his life in danger. George, his 
family, and about fifty slaves from Silver Bluff went 
to the British forces around Savannah, later going to 
Charleston, South Carolina, whence the British gave 
them free passage to Nova Scotia in 1782. It may be 
that their presence in Charleston influenced the build- 
ing of a Negro Baptist Church there in 1792 on land 
given by the city. In Nova Scotia the first (Negro) 
Baptist church, Shelburne, was established by those 
immigrants in 1783 with outstations at St. John's, 
Frederick Town, and Preston. 

The climate in Canada was too severe for them; 
they were cruelly treated. So 1196 of them, whose num- 
ber had been greatly augmented by British Negro sym- 
pathizers from the colonies, embarked for Sierra Le- 
one, West Africa, in January, 1792, leaving the church 
in Canada with only four members in 1794 under 
Henry Chipman, pastor. After a wearisome voyage 
of seven weeks during which many died, David George 
planted the first Baptist Church in Sierra Leone on 
the first Lord's Day there. After three years the 
newly organized Baptist Missionary Society of Eng- 



Beginnings in America 37 

land sent two workers to Sierra Leone to help in this 
work which has continued to this day. 

In Jamaica and the Bahamas 

George Liele began preaching on plantations near 
Savannah between 1778 and 1782, during which time 
he organized a Negro Baptist church in Savannah. 
This society included members from Silver Bluff. 
Liele was engaged in a financial controversy and was 
forced to go to Jamaica to pay his debt. He reached 
Kingston in 1782 and organized a church there with 
his companions from Savannah. He also petitioned 
the Baptist Missionary Society to send workers. There 
was also a similar work done in the Bahama Islands 
by loyalist Negroes. 

Silver Bluff and Bead River, South Carolina 

The Silver Bluff Church lived again in Edgefield 
County after the Revolution. Asplund states that it 
was constituted in 1781, and probably Jesse Peters 
was pastor. He was the pastor in 1792 when the 
church had two hundred ten members. The tradi- 
tion of the section is that Silver Bluff had a continued 
existence at Stormbranch and at Seven Springs. Later 
the Seven Springs church was located on a still branch 
of the Savannah River, called Dead River, which name 
a church about five miles from Augusta still retains. 1 



1. The corner stone of this church, laid when the build- 
ing was remodelled in 1920 erroneously states that the church 
was organized by Peters in 1750. 



38 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

In Augusta, Georgia 

As the population was shifting to the towns and 
cities, a group in Georgia, which was also to con- 
tinue the organization of the Silver Bluff Church, was 
in Augusta holding meetings in private dwellings. They 
were organized in 1790-1 as the Springfield Baptist 
Church. Jesse Peters was pastor although he did not 
relinquish his work at Silver Bluff and at one or two 
of his other churches until later. During the early 
history of the Dead River Church it was connected 
with the Springfield Church which continues until this 
day. 

In Savannah 

One of the last acts of Liele before his departure 
for Jamaica was to baptize Andrew, Hannah, his wife, 
and Hagar, all slaves of Mr. Jonathan Bryan, and 
Kate, belonging to Mrs. Eunice Hogg. Andrew Bryan 
began to exhort and to hold meetings with great dif- 
ficulty. Thomas Burton, an aged Baptist minister, 
visited them in 1785 and baptized eighteen just three 
years prior to their constitution as the present First 
African Baptist Church of Savannah, begun with 
eighty members, January 20, 1788, by Abraham Mar- 
shall. 1 



1. For details of this storv see, Rippon, The Baptist An- 
nual Register, 1790-1793, 475ff.; ibid, i, 333f., 335f., 343L, 
474-481, 541; Asplund, Register, 1794, 50, 68, 92; Hoare, 
Memoirs of Granville Sharpe, Esq., 274-292; Wigfall, A Brief 
History of Dead River Baptist Church; Brooks, The Silver 
Bluff Church. 



Beginnings in America 39 

Other Early Negro Churches 

It would not be surprising if some undiscovered 
document should reveal a Negro church organization 
prior to the Silver Bluff Church, for the Negro church 
arose during the Great Awakening. But none could 
be found that was more fruitful than this first known 
organization of Negroes, although contemporary- 
Negro churches were numerous. In Virginia both the 
present Harrison Street and the Gilfield churches 
claim priority. The Gilfield Church (1774), how- 
ever, was the first church of Negroes in Petersburg to 
continue the organization of free Negroes and of race 
conscious slaves who had been connected with neigh- 
boring churches before 1760. The Williamsburg (1776) 
and the King and Queen (1782) churches have be- 
come extinct. In the North the African (1805), Bos- 
ton, the Abyssinian (1808), New York City, and the 
First African (Cherry Memorial, 1809), Philadel- 
phia, were constituted with Negro members from 
neighboring white churches. It is estimated that there 
were 25,000 Negro Baptists in 1800. 



Sig.- 



CHAPTER IV 



With both prestige and numbers Baptists, as other 
denominations, had their greatest challenge among the 
peoples of the receding frontier. There among 
thousands of enterprising and enthusiastic folk who 
had migrated because of economic reasons or of so- 
cial maladjustments, seeking adventure and loving 
freedom, was an opportunity to propagate the faith in 
a section which has determined the character of many- 
American institutions. 

Early Churches in Kentucky 

The first settlers in Kentucky and Tennessee in- 
cluded many Baptists from Virginia and North Caro- 
lina. It was about the time of the Revolution that 
regular preaching was first held in Kentucky though 
not until June, 1781, that the first church, Severns 
Valley, was established. That same year Lewis 
Craig led most of his church, formerly of Spottsyl- 
vania County, Virginia, into Kentucky. The first set- 
tlement was at Gilbert's Creek in December where 
Lancaster, Garrard County, is now located. There 
the Head of Boone's Creek Church was organized about 
five miles from Lexington. Peter, Craig's slave, bet- 
ter known as "Brother Captain" or "Old Captain," 

40 



Propagating the Faith 41 

was one of the constituent members. He had been 
dispatched by Craig the year previous to raise a crop 
in Kentucky for his master. The Indians destroyed 
it, and Peter returned to Virginia in time to be the 
guide of Craig's 'Traveling Church." Finally settling 
in Lexington, Captain began to exhort in his own 
rude cabin and in the houses of other Negroes from 
1790 to 1797. Although unordained, he baptized his 
converts, who about 1801 erected a rude structure on 
what is now Maxwell Street. From then on the Afri- 
can or First Baptist Church of Lexington and the first 
Negro church west of the Alleghanies took definite 
form. 1 

Kentucky Associations 

One of the first objects of the Kentucky churches 
was to form associations for mutual helpfulness. The 
Elkhorn (Regular), 1785, the Salem (Regular), 1785, 
and the South Kentucky (Separate), 1787, were the 
earliest. After several attempts to unite the Regular 
and Separate Baptists, union was perfected by the 
Elkhorn and South Kentucky associations in 1801. A 
great revival of religion was sweeping over the West 
so that in 1803 there were 10 associations, 219 
churches, and 15,495 members. 

In Tennessee 

As in Kentucky, so in Tennessee, the Baptists were 
not among the first settlers. Their first two churches 



1. About 1829 followers of Captain became known as the 
Pleasant Green Church while the African Church remained 
with Loudon Ferrill, pastor. 



42 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

in East Tennessee were broken up about the time of 
the Revolution, but one of them, the Glade-Hollows, 
was reconstituted following the War. Permanent 
church organization began with the Buffalo Ridge 
(Boone's Creek) in 1780. The following year there 
were five or six churches which retained connection 
with the Sandy Creek Association of North Carolina 
until 1786 when their Holston Association was formed. 
The Head of Sulphur Fork Church, commonly called 
Dorris' church from her pastor, Joseph Dorris, went 
to West Tennessee from North Carolina in 1795. 
Joining with four other churches in this Cumberland 
section, the earliest dating from 1791, this church 
formed the Mero Association in 1796 which grew to 
18 churches and about 1200 members in five years. 

Frontier Preachers and Churches 

The developments on the frontier in Kentucky and 
Tennessee were not more singular than elsewhere. The 
virginity of the country demanded the most rigid 
lives of the preachers. They traveled on horseback 
and in boats, exposed to the rigors of climate and dis- 
ease. Their living derived from farming and hunting 
was augmented by a subscription, but they preached 
because they were called. The condition of the times 
made an itinerating ministry necessary, with churches 
located generally on streams so as to be accessible. 
The weaknesses of the frontier churches account for 
their need of associations, which, however, were fre- 
quently rent by divisions not so much because of doc- 
trinal reasons, as for lack of agreement respecting 
social questions like missions and slavery. The 



Propagating the Faith 43 

frontiersmen permitted women to play some part in 
the churches. 

Camp Meetings 

The associations touched the life of the people. 
Their annual gatherings in camp meetings where for 
several days crowds from the surrounding country as- 
sembled, some living in temporary houses constructed 
for the occasion, attracted the devout and the curious. 
The preachers could speak with unrestrained emo- 
tion, for the heavens were their sounding boards, and 
the valleys, their audience chambers. To break the 
monotony of frontier life, to hold fellowship friend 
with friend, and to partake of the communion and all 
of the emotionalism of the earlier revivals was enough 
to justify the meetings. 

Early Churches in North Central States 

That territory northwest of the Ohio River, out of 
which came the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Wisconsin, provided further oppor- 
tunity to spread the faith among the frontier people. 

In Ohio 

Just a few months after the earliest settlement at 
Marietta, Ohio, a company from Connecticut, New 
York, and New Jersey settled at Columbia within 
what is now Cincinnati. The first Baptist church in 
the Northwest Territory was organized there in 1790 
and still exists as the Duck Creek Church. In 1797 



44 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

the first general association of the Northwest, the 
Miami, was formed of four churches, embracing Cin- 
cinnati and the Miami valley regions. The first as- 
sociation of Negro Baptists in the United States was 
the Providence Anti-slavery Baptist Association of 
Ohio, organized in 1834. 

In Indiana 

The first Indiana church was begun on Silver Creek 
in 1798. Along the Wabash churches were formed be- 
tween the years 1806 and 1808 so that the Wabash 
Association was formed of five churches in 1808. In- 
diana had the distinction of the ministry of Isaac Mc- 
Coy, first Baptist missionary to the Indians, and of 
vying with New York in establishing the first anti- 
slavery college for the education of all colors and both 
sexes in 1848. The worth of a man and of a woman 
went together, but like the New York Central Col- 
lege at McGrawville, the Eleutheian College, begun 
by Thomas Craven and his son, J. G. Craven, at Lan- 
caster, Jefferson County, Indiana, had not suf- 
ficient funds to keep it alive. The school, at length 
abandoned, prepared Moses Broyles for the leadership 
of the Negro Baptists in Indiana. 

In Illinois 

The Baptists in Illinois began with the Lemen family 
at Piggot's Fort in 1786. Being visited by several 
ministers at the Fort and in the log-house of James 
Lemen, aggressive anti-slavery leader, the group was 
augmented by the coming of David Bagley from Vir- 



Propagating the Faith 45 

ginia who formed the New Design Church in May, 
1796. The Illinois Association was formed in 1807. 
McCoy preached the first sermon in Chicago in 1825. 
In Illinois the second oldest association among Negroes 
formed was the Wood River, organized in 1839. 

In Michigan and Wisconsin 

Michigan and Wisconsin were more destitute than 
other sections of the Northwest, and so the feeble be- 
ginnings of the Baptists there did not head into as- 
sociations until the Michigan in 1827 and the Wiscon- 
sin in 1838 were organized. 

In Louisiana 

Among the galaxy of pioneers who risked life and 
fortune in order to carry out their holy orders to win 
the frontier for their denomination, Protestantism, 
and Christ, none is more distinguished than Joseph 
Willis (1762-1854), a free Negro from South Carolina. 
As a licensed preacher he appeared in Mississippi with 
other migrants in 1798, while this territory did not 
belong to the United States. From the southwestern 
part of that territory he went forth as an apostle to 
the Opelousa Indians in 1804 and was the first Protes- 
tant person to preach west of the Mississippi in what 
is now Louisiana. After seeking ordination for years, 
he was finally ordained in 1812 and with six members 
constituted the first Baptist church in Louisiana at 
Bayou Chicot, November 13 of that year. The founda- 
tion was thus laid for other churches in the State 
which came together as the Louisiana Association in 



46 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

1818. Joseph Willis became its moderator and was 
active in its growth. 

Organized Home Missions 

In the midst of what seemed to be an unorganized 
way of propagating the faith, an event of far-reaching 
consequence was transpiring across the sea. Wil- 
liam Carey, the English cobbler, made Christians 
feel the burden of non-Christians wherever they 
were found through the organization of the 
Baptist Missionary Society. Societies for the 
spread of the gospel sprang up like mushrooms, but 
many of their lives were as perennial as the oaks. The 
formation of a mission society of Baptists and Pres- 
byterians in New York in 1796 was the earliest or- 
ganized effort on the part of the denomination. The 
Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Society, formed in 
1802, had for its object "to furnish occasional preach- 
ing, and to promote the knowledge of evangelical 
truth in the new settlements within these United 
States; or further, if circumstances should render it 
proper." For twelve years thereafter missionary fer- 
vor grew and crystallized until the entire denomina- 
tion formed the Triennial Convention in 1814. Al- 
though its immediate object was the non-Christian 
lands, in 1817 it appointed John Mason Peck and James 
E. Welch, his brother-in-law, missionaries to the West. 

John Mason Peck 

John Mason Peck was born in Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, on October 31, 1789, and joined the Congrega- 



Propagating the Faith 47 

tional Church there at eighteen years of age. Re- 
moving with his wife to Windham, New York, in 
1811, he came in touch with the Baptists through the 
pastor of New Durham, an adjoining town. He 
studied the Scriptures, was baptized, and the next 
day preached his first sermon on invitation of the 
church. He was ordained to the ministry at Cats- 
kill in 1812. 

His Mission 

Leaving a short pastorate, he devoted himself to 
mission work. After a year of study under Doctor 
Staughton, of Philadelphia, he was ready for his life's 
work in the West. None but a hero buoyed up by 
faith would have set out for the frontier in a covered 
wagon with wife and three children on a long 
journey of twelve hundred miles to St. Louis where 
there were "men with bark on." Yet Peck did. It 
took him from July 25 to December 1 to make the 
journey. His brother-in-law had preceded him. By 
February, 1818, he had organized the First Baptist 
Church of St. Louis. 

First African Church of St. Louis 

In the first baptism ever witnessed in St. Louis or 
its vicinity, a Negro was one of the two candidates. 
He at once became an assistant in Peck's Negro Sab- 
bath school, begun in 1818 for the Negro communi- 
cants of the First Church. The work progressed de- 
spite the threats of citizens and formed a branch of 
the white church in 1822, receiving monthly visits 



48 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

from Peck. John Berry Meachum, a free Negro, was 
ordained in 1825 to become the pastor of the then 
constituted First African Church of St. Louis which 
still prospers. 

His Labors 

Peck was a man of varied interests. One of his most 
promising projects was the theological seminary begun 
at Rock Spring, Illinois. Nevertheless, he and his as- 
sociate had been continued with the Convention hardly 
two years before aid was withdrawn. He refused the 
opportunity to join Isaac McCoy in his labors among 
the Indians at Fort Wayne and remained in Illinois, 
but under the auspices of the Massachusetts Mission- 
ary Society, receiving five dollars a week. 

American Baptist Home Mission Society 

After nine years in the West, Peck returned to the 
East with splendid talking points about the West as 
a place to work out the mission plan. The Triennial 
Convention could do nothing; but the home mission 
idea had ready reception with Dr. Jonathan Going, 
the successful pastor at Worcester. After some years 
he obtained a leave of absence from his church to 
visit the West under the auspices of the Massachu- 
setts Society. With Peck he drafted a plan for a so- 
ciety which was approved by others. A committee 
called a convention in New York City where on April 
27, 1832, the American Baptist Home Mission Society 
was organized "to promote the preaching of the gos- 
pel in North America." Doctor Going became the 



Propagating the Faith 49 

corresponding secretary with headquarters in New 
York City where they have remained. 

Its First Work 

Though there were thirty-seven workers of the So- 
ciety on the frontier during this first year, Peck was 
the leader and was indefatigable in his labors. Founder 
of Shurtleff College, organizer of the Illinois Educa- 
tion Society, publisher, editor, and author are only a 
partial list of his titles to grateful remembrance. He 
died in 1856. 

Isaac McCoy Among the Indians 

In 1817 a few months after Peck's appointment 
Isaac McCoy received a year's commission from the 
Triennial Convention as a missionary among the In- 
dians of Indiana and Illinois. Laboring a short time 
in Western Indiana, McCoy started a school at Fort 
Wayne. Later at Niles, Michigan, and elsewhere, but 
always with great success, McCoy gave his active life 
for the welfare of the vanishing red men. A typical 
example of his labors was the organization of the first 
Baptist church in Indian territory, the Muscogee (Ebe- 
nezer) on September 9, 1832, of three whites and three 
Negro slaves to the Indians, a beginning which has be- 
come the seed of eleven hundred other churches. 

Work of the Home Mission Society 

Besides the missionaries on the frontier the Home 
Mission Society had fifty missionaries laboring in the 



50 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Northern States and several in the Southern States 
during its first year. Organizing churches in cen- 
ters like Cleveland, Indianapolis, Louisville, Detroit, 
and Chicago was one of its first objects. No strategic 
place in the entire country was intentionally neg- 
lected. 

Anti-Missionism 

Yet a peculiar phenomenon was developing among 
the Baptists. 1 A considerable number bitterly opposed 
the missionary movement after they saw its social 
consequences. Of course, there was a theology to sup- 
port the claim of the opposition that God's revelation 
of salvation was to His elect who needed no human 
aid. Certainly there was no Scriptural warrant for the 
missionary organizations as projected, but those ob- 
jections were probably afterthoughts of the anti-mis- 
sion Baptists. There, in a section of the country out 
of touch with the educational and cultural influences 
of the East, the anti-missionists became jealous and 
selfish when a better educated and paid ministry 
came among them. So whether confusing the mission 
agencies with the abolitionist societies or attacking 
the centralized authority of the former, the anti-mis- 
sion Baptists had tireless champions in John Taylor, 
Daniel Parker, and Alexander Campbell. With his "Re- 
formers" Campbell, nominally a Baptist from 1813 to 
1833, even though the Redstone Association of West- 



1. See, "The Rise of the Anti-Mission Baptists: A Frontier 
Phenomenon" in Sweet, Religion on the American Frontier: 
The Baptists, 1783-1830. 



Propagating the Faith 51 

ern Pennsylvania withdrew the hand of fellowship 
in 1827, unintentionally started what became another 
denomination. Although the followers of Campbell, 
the Disciples, reversed his stand on missions, their 
other tenets advocated through the Millennial Har- 
binger, such as the abolition of creeds and of relating 
one's experience before baptism, and the claim of re- 
storing the ancient gospel, were plausible enough in 
three years to break the denominational bands of ten 
thousand Baptists in Kentucky alone. 

Thomas Paul and the Haitian Mission 

Until the Home Mission Society was organized the 
real interest of local and national mission societies 
was in non-Christian lands. In 1823 Thomas Paul, 
pastor of the African Baptist Church, Boston, of- 
fered his services to the Massachusetts Missionary So- 
ciety to investigate religious conditions in Haiti. His 
church granted him a leave of absence for that serv- 
ice which he fulfilled in eight months. No further 
steps were taken by the Society, although the African 
Church made contributions to the Society for years 
afterwards. Until American Baptists had their own 
missionaries they contributed to the cause of missions 
through the English Society. 

The Judsons 

The career of Adoniram Judson changed things. A 
graduate of Brown and later a special student in 
Andover Theological Seminary, his conviction of the 
obligation of Christians to i propagate the faith with 
that of his other schoolmates, Hall, Newell, and Nott, 



52 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

led to the formation of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, the Congregational 
Society which appointed these four their mission- 
aries in 1811. In 1812 eight persons, including 
Adoniram Judson and his wife, Ann Hasseltine Jud- 
son, all Congregationalists, were sent to Calcutta, 
India, where some English Baptists were laboring. The 
party sailed by two ships. On shipboard both Judson 
and his wife underwent a change of views respecting 
baptism by the study of the Scriptures. So after be- 
ing convinced at Calcutta that Baptist views were 
Scriptural, they were baptized by William Ward on 
September 6, 1812. When the ship bearing Luther 
Rice arrived, he made known his identical experience 
and was baptized November 1. 

The Triennial Convention 

The news of the baptism of Rev. and Mrs. Judson 
and Rev. Mr. Rice reached America early in 1813. Dr. 
Thomas Baldwin of Boston, editor of the Massa- 
chusetts Baptist Magazine, to whom Judson had writ- 
ten, called a meeting that year out of which came 
the Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel in In- 
dia and Other Foreign Parts for the support of the 
Judsons. Other societies were formed especially af- 
ter the arrival in America of Luther Rice in Sep- 
tember. His gripping appeals by visitation through 
the East, Middle West, and South resulted in thirty- 
three delegates, representing eleven states, meeting in 
Philadelphia, May 18, 1814, and organizing the Gen- 
eral Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomina- 
tion in the United States of America for Foreign Mis- 



Propagating the Faith 53 



sions, commonly called the Triennial Convention be- 
cause of the interval between its meetings. Richard 
Furman of South Carolina was president, Thomas 
Baldwin of Massachusetts was secretary, Luther Rice, 
agent, and the Judsons, then in Ragoon, Burma, were 
accepted as missionaries. 

Bible Societies 

By 1834 Judson had made his most far-reaching 
contribution to missions, the translatjjMr^fsthe Bible 
ijtfo Burmese. The American Bible Society (1816) 
of which the Baptists were constituent mem- 
bers with seven denominations, made substan- 
tial contribution to the printing and circula- 
tion of that translation. It would rightly be 
supposed that Judson's rendering of "baptize" and 
its cognates would leave no doubt as to the original 
meaning, by using the Burmese word for immersion, 
but when in 1835 the Society refused aid to the Eng- 
lish Baptists for their similar translation of the Ben- 
gali Scriptures a controversy was begun which lasted 
nearly fifty years. The American Baptists organized 
the American and Foreign Bible Society in Philadel- 
phia in April, 1837, which came to agree to a faith- 
ful rendering of the original text in foreign transla- 
tions, but that the English Scriptures "be restricted 
to the commonly received version, without note or com- 
ment." Two days after this vote had been taken on 
May 25, 1850, the American Bible Union was organ- 
ized to render all versions accurately with the word 
immerse or immersion or their equivalents in the 
language of the version. The conflict seemed near di- 



54 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

viding the denomination and was not ended until 1883 
when the Missionary Union became responsible for 
foreign Bible work and the Publication Society, for the 
English Scriptures, each Society to circulate the 
version with the rendering baptize or that with the 
rendering immerse according to the demand for each 
and according to the funds designated for either 
version. 

Foreign Mission Fields 

\ Until 1845 when the Southern states formed their 
own Convention, the Triennial Convention remained 
the official medium of the denomination for foreign 
missions having relinquished its earlier attempts at 
home missions and education. Its endeavors were 
at first concentrated among the Burmese and Karens 
after the establishment of that mission in 1828 by 
George Dana Boardman. Other missions were in 
Africa (1821), in Siam (1833), in Arracan (1835), in 
China (1834) by William Dean at Bangkok who moved 
to Hong Kong in 1842 and in Assam (1836). 

Lott Gary and Africa 

The African Mission is singular in that directly and 
indirectly it influenced Negro Baptists who were a part 
of the mission movement from the first. The Rich- 
mond African Baptist Missionary Society, which was 
organized about 1815, appropriated about seven hun- 
dred dollars to the Triennial Convention to send mem- 
bers of its own race, Lott Cary and Colin Teague, to 
Africa. In 1821 they went out with colonists under 



Propagating the Faith 55 

the auspices of the Convention and of the then pop- 
ular American Colonization Society and planted the 
first Baptist church in Monrovia that year. Cary, 
a man, as Newman says, of marked ability and high 
character, had become the Lieutenant Governor of Li- 
beria, but was killed in 1828 in preparing ammuni- 
tion to quell a native uprising. 1 The influence of this 
beginning was marked. For over twenty years the 
African Society was represented in the Convention. 
The example of this Richmond Society was copied by 
the African Church of Philadelphia and by the Gil- 
field Church of Petersburg, the latter organization de- 
fraying the expense of Colston W. Waring to Africa 
in 1823. Negroes all over the country sent contribu- 
tions to the Convention to spread the gospel. 2 



1. See my article, "Lott Cary, the Colonizing Missionary" 
in the Journal of Negro History, vii, 380-418, 427-448. 

2. August 5, 1816, the Negro Baptists of Warren County, 
North Carolina, contributed $5.15; August 18, of the County 
Line Association, Caswell County, North Carolina, 69 cents; 
September 1, of the Shiloh Association, Culpepper, Virginia, 
$1.90; October 21, of the Pee Dee Association, Montgomery 
County, North Carolina, $2.19; May 7, 1817, "a Col. worn." 
of Georgia, $1.00; June 2, "Coloured Brethren" of Sunbury 
Association Georgia, $21.00; June 16, "a man of colour, 15 
cts." — a woman of col., 6 cts.; and August 1, "a man 
of col., 25 cts." Third Annual Report Baptist Board of 
Foreign Missions, 146-149; Fourth Annual Report, 206, 208. 



Sig.— 5 



CHAPTER V 

THE SLAVERY CONTROVERSY 

Early Baptists and Slavery 

Roger Williams did not spare his words as early as 
1637 against the enslavement of the Pequot Indians, 
but he did not include the African in his protest. 
Though the Negroes of Providence Plantation were 
granted freedom by the statute of 1652, men of dis- 
tinction in the denomination thought nothing of slav- 
ery until the Revolution was drawing on. Three well- 
known slaveholders were Henry Sater, founder of the 
first church in Chestnut Ridge, Maryland, 1742; Sam- 
uel Stillman, for over forty years pastor of the First 
Church, Boston, and Hezekiah Smith, who has this 
reference to a Negro boy of fourteen in his diary: 
"Fri. 3 May, 1776— Sold Cato to my brother Peter for 
125 dollars and returned the same day to N. Y." 

After the Revolution with its emphasis on the 
rights of man the same men reversed their positions 
and came abreast of the humanitarian and reform 
movements of the times. The Sater family like others 
freed their slaves as fast as they could. At the War- 
ren Association in 1787 at which Hezekiah Smith took 
a part in the deliberations, Doctor Stillman desired all 
the Association "to guard against giving the least 
countenance to the heaven-daring wickedness." A 

56 



The Slavery Controversy 57 

complete list of anti-slavery Baptists with Robert 
Carter, William Staughton, John Asplund, Thomas 
Chisman, David Barrow, James Manning, Isaac Bac- 
kus, William Rogers, and John Leland would seem like 
a catalogue. So would the names of churches and as- 
sociations both here and abroad that voiced a protest 
against slavery. Notwithstanding, the irony of the 
whole affair was that successful Negro Baptist pas- 
tors like Andrew Bryan of the First African Church, 
Savannah, Georgia; Daniel Jackson of the Harrison 
Street Church, Petersburg, Virginia, and John Berry 
Meachum of the First African Church, St. Louis, 
Missouri, themselves held slaves far into the nine- 
teenth century. 

Typical Anti-Slavery Resolution 

A typical resolution of the South respecting slavery 
might be the one of the General (Virginia) Commit- 
tee, introduced by John Leland in 1789 and represent- 
ing four associations: "Resolved, that slavery is a 
violent deprivation of the rights of nature and incon- 
sistent with a republican government, and therefore 
recommend it to our brethren, to make use of every 
legal measure to extirpate this horrid evil from the 
land; and pray Almighty God that our honorable 
legislature may have it in their power to proclaim the 
great Jubilee, consistent with the principles of good 
policy." 

Slavery, A Southern Institution 

After 1783 all of the interest on behalf of the 
slaves was not the result of humanitarian spirit. Slav- 



58 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

ery was unprofitable in the North and had not secured 
a happy solution of the industrial problem of the 
South. Numerous rebellions of slaves, especially in 
Haiti, had occurred, and the Southern people felt that 
the presence of Negroes was not safe. If perchance 
gradual emancipation should be adopted as the Phila- 
delphia Association had suggested, as the North 
had legislated, and as the South was in sympathy, 
What would be done with the freed men? Before that 
question could be answered the cotton gin was in- 
vented, and slavery became a Southern institution. 
The institution fastened itself on the South and grew 
in spite of the protests of voices crying in the wilder- 
ness. 



Emancipators on the Frontier 

Prophets of a different social order became an or- 
ganized group in the West. Not one whit behind the 
political efforts against slavery in Kentucky that 
harked back to the last decade of the eighteenth cen- 
tury was the action of the Elkhorn Association, which, 
in 1792, pronounced slavery inconsistent with the 
Christian religion. Even though this resolution had 
to be recalled in a few months to save the unity of the 
churches, there were individuals like Joshua Carmen 
and Josiah Dodge, initiators of the first "emancipa- 
tion church," and followed by John Sutton and Carter 
Tarrant, founders of the New Hope Church in 1791, 
who were against slavery. There were kindred spirits 
such as Donald Holmes, Jacob Gregg, George Smith, 
and David Barrow, some from Europe but all in Ameri- 



The Slavery Controversy 59 

ca, who declared for the abolition of slavery and for 
no fellowship with slaveholders. Commonly called 
Emancipators, they called themselves Friends to Hu- 
manity. 

Friends to Humanity 

By far the leader of the Emancipating Baptists was 
David Barrow, ex-soldier of the Revolution, and pub- 
lisher of an emancipation Circular Letter in Virginia 
where he had manumitted his own slaves in 1784. 
After a ministry of twenty-four years at Mill Swamp 
Church, Isle of Wight County (the last ten years 
were divided with Southampton County) he moved to 
Kentucky in 1798 because he viewed "holding, tyr- 
annizing over, and driving slaves. . . contrary to 
the laws of God and nature." 

The influence of the Friends to Humanity created 
schism and unrest among the Baptists, so that the 
Elkhorn Association in 1805 resolved that slavery was 
a political issue and consequently ministers, churches, 
and associations were not to "meddle" with it. There 
was trouble in the Bracken Association, and David 
Barrow was expelled from the North District Asso- 
ciation. The disaffected members of these associa- 
tions in 1807 formed the Baptized Licking-Locust As- 
sociation, Friends to Humanity, which became an abo- 
lition society. "Tarrant's Rules" were already a cate- 
chism of anti-slavery principles for such a body, and 
Barrow made sentiment for the movement by pub- 
lishing a pamphlet, entitled Involuntary, Unmerited, 
Perpetual, Absolute, Hereditary Slavery Examined on 
the Principles of Nature, Reason, Justice and Scrip- 






, 



60 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

ture. The movement did not last longer than 1820 in 
Kentucky and at its height hardly numbered more 
than a dozen churches. 

In Illinois 

As in Kentucky the Friends to Humanity grew up 
in Illinois, but unlike them they defeated the pro- 
slavery party by 1830. The movement centered 
around the Lemen family, consisting of father, James 
Lemen, and four sons. The elder Lemen, claiming to 
express the views of Thomas Jefferson to have the 
Northwest unencumbered by slavery, created a schism 
in the Illinois Baptist Association in 1809 which re- 
sulted in the formation of the Baptist Church of Christ 
(Bethel), Friends to Humanity, consisting of his 
family and Benjamin Ogle at Cantine Creek in Decem- 
ber of that year. The South District Association, 
Friends to Humanity, constituted in 1809, became the 
medium through which the Lemen family expressed 
their anti-slavery views. It had attracted other 
churches by 1829, so that it was divided into three 
parts, known as the South, North, and Missouri Dis- 
tricts. There is no doubt that the stand of the Lemens 
helped Illinois enter the Union as a free state. The 
Friends to Humanity would continue their protests. By 
1848, according to Benedict, they had at least seven 
associations in Illinois, some of which maintained the 
name of Friends to Humanity until the Civil War. 

In Missouri, Iowa, and the Northwest 

From Illinois the Friends to Humanity went into 
Missouri, forming numerous churches and the Dis- 



The Slavery Controversy 61 

trict Association. In Iowa, south of Burlington in 
1836, Elders James Lemen, Jr., Moses Lemen, and 
John Clark from Rock Spring, Illinois, formed the 
Baptized Church of Christ, Friends to Humanity. The 
Jubilee, Liberty, and Madison associations in Indiana 
represent bodies that questioned even the correspond- 
ing with slaveholding Baptists. In Ohio the Provi- 
dence and Mad River associations were Friends to Hu- 
manity. 

Precursors of Abolition 

The Friends to Humanity had plowed the field that 
proved fertile soil for the abolitionist propaganda. 
Nevertheless, Baptists in general were not prepared to 
answer the most important social question of the 
nineteenth century so courageously as the Friends to 
Humanity. Yet the contention of the Friends to Hu- 
manity for general emancipation which should be 
most advantageous "both to the slaves and their 
owners" was everywhere going on, creating a growing 
class of freed Negroes with whom the body politic was 
perplexed. 

American Colonization Society 

In 1816 the American Colonization Society was 
formed to send free Negroes out of the country, and 
after 1822 an asylum was provided in what is now 
Liberia, West Africa. As the conservative plan of 
colonization increased, the cause of the radical Friends 
to Humanity decreased. , Baptists seemed enthusias- 
tic over the idea, endorsing the plan in churches and 



62 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

associations and starting branches of the Society in 
the North and in the South. John Mason Peck was 
one of the agents of the Colonization Society in the 
West. Free Negroes, however, were never very en- 
thusiastic over it. Lott Cary wrote the Triennial Con- 
vention Mission Board about three months after he 
arrived in Africa: "I am truly sorry, that the hopes 
and expectations of the Board cannot be realized, as 
to our missionary labours; for, as it pleased you to 
have us connected with the Colonization Society. . . . 
we must cultivate it (a farm) for our support, and 
for the support of these (recaptured) Africans." Up 
to 1852 only 7836 Negroes had been sent to Africa; 
according to the United States Census for 1850 the 
free Negroes in America numbered 434,495. 

Abolitionism 

The emancipation idea was revived but this time by 
abolitionists who believed that America needed a 
shock experience, immediate emancipation without 
compensation, which opinion they were ready to seal 
with their blood. This sentiment was crystallized 
when William Lloyd Garrison began his Liberator in 
1831 and shone with great brilliancy after the Ameri- 
can Anti-Slavery Society was organized in 1833. 

A Divided Nation 

The whole country was divided into slavery and 
anti-slavery sympathizers. The best brain upheld 
either side. Preachers, poets, authors, and orators of 
both views spoke in no uncertain tones. The anti-slav- 



The Slavery Controversy 63 

ery element created a literature to give a death-blow to 
slavery. The pro-slavery forces did not need to create 
one, although they wrote. The Biblical patriarchs, 
prophets and preachers, including Jesus of Nazareth 
and Paul of Tarsus took slavery for granted. South- 
ern people and all others have never found the Bible 
saying a word against the system. Yet the North took 
the Bible and found in it the Spirit of Jesus tri- 
umphing over the letter of the law. 

Nat Turner and His Insurrection 



I At the very outset of the controversy in 1831 Nat 
Turner, a Baptist preacher in Southampton County, 
Virginia, brought to a climax a series of slave insur- 
rections by killing sixty-one whites before he was cap- 
tured and hanged. He had been influenced by the 
teachings of David Barrow, for it is remembered that 
that emancipator spent ten years in Southampton 
County before he left for Kentucky two years before 
Turner was born. 1 It was believed that Turner had 
read the literature of the abolitionists. Thereupon, 
it did not take the South many months to enact a re- 
vised black code, curtailing any effort for freedom that 
Negroes might make. Among other things Negro 
preachers were to be silenced; no assemblies of Ne- 
groes were to be held without a white person present; 
instruction in reading and writing was forbidden, and 
passes became more difficult to obtain. The effects of 
these enactments will be shown in succeeding chapters. 



1. See ray article "Nat Turner, a Hundred Years After- 
wards" in the Crisis, August, 1931. 



64 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

American Slavery Before the World 

Nevertheless, the slavery issue was before the 
world, and both conservative and radical Baptists 
could not refrain from participating in the agitation. 
Then it was that slavery was recognized by some as 
an evil to be eradicated at any cost. Then it was that 
voices of protest crying in the wilderness were em- 
boldened to be heard on the highways. 

Attitude of Denominational Agencies 

The denominational agencies tried hard to preserve 
the unity of their organizations. During twenty-one of 
the thirty years of the existence of the Triennial Con- 
vention slaveholders were presidents. The Home Mis- 
sion Society appointed both Friends to Humanity and 
slaveholders as its missionaries. Rather the policy of 
the denomination was that of the Society when it said 
during the height of the controversy: "It would be 
traveling out of the record to allow the introduction 
of the question (slavery), or admit it, even as a sub- 
ject of conference in the Society. . . The Executive 
Committee must, with their views as to the proper 
province of the Society and its Committee, claim an 
exemption from any share in such a discussion." 

English Baptists 

The Baptists of London and vicinity who had 
worked nobly in helping England win gradual emanci- 
pation for the West Indies would bring their aggres- 



The Slavery Controversy 65 

siveness to America. Garrison was already abroad 
stirring up sentiment for abolitionism. So under date 
of December 31, 1833, the English Baptists addressed 
a letter to the pastors and ministers of the Baptist 
denomination throughout the United States of Ameri- 
ca urging them to take some action against slavery 
which to them was "a sin to be abandoned, and not an 
evil to be mitigated." The Board of the Triennial 
Convention replied by letter and resolution in Sep- 
tember of the next year that "we are precluded, by 
our Constitution, from taking any part in the discus- 
sion on the subject proposed in said communication." 
Not content with correspondence the Baptist Union 
dispatched Elders F. A. Cox and J. Hoby to America 
"to promote the sacred cause of Negro emancipa- 
tion." Although the deputation attended the Triennial 
Convention in 1835, it maintained a public silence on 
slavery except at the meeting of the Free Will Bap- 
tists 1 in New Hampshire. Notwithstanding, English 
Baptists in 1836 announced that they would have no 
intercourse with slaveholding American Baptists. 

Baptist Magazine 

Moreover, the Baptist Magazine of July, 1834, had 
reviewed an anti-slavery address. Such a stir was 
made that in the August issue the editor remarked 
that nothing further on slavery would be admitted 
to the organ. 



1. That body took a stand against slavery in 1839. Wiley, 
Life of Randall, 274. 



66 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

American Baptist Anti-Slavery Convention 

But the anti-slavery element would have no com- 
promise. Correspondingly, more than 180 persons 
signed a letter to the English Baptists purporting to 
be more expressive of the American Baptist attitude 
on slavery. About 100 persons responded to a call of 
some 700 Baptists in McDougal Street Church, New 
York City, on April 28, 1840, and formed the Ameri- 
can Baptist Anti-Slavery Convention with Elon Galu- 
sha, president. Elon Galusha was thereupon ejected 
from the Board of Vice-Presidents of the Triennial 
Convention in 1841. 

Divided Leaders 

The keynote for the division of the Baptists in 
America had been sounded. A Southern board of the 
Triennial Convention was proposed, of which Jesse 
Mercer wrote with prophetic insight: "The tendency 
will inevitably be to break up all our united operations, 
and I seriously fear, our civil union also." The distinc- 
tions among the Baptists were not geographical but 
were of radical anti-slavery, of neutral organization, 
and of pro-slavery Baptists. The anti-slavery Bap- 
tists believed slavery the most heinous sin and slave- 
holders un-Christian. Many moderate Baptists agreed 
with the statement of Francis Wayland: "I believe 
slavery to be a sin; but consider many of the South- 
ern slaveholders as free from the guilt of slavery as 
I am." Some Southern men agreed with that state- 
ment, for many of them had inherited slaves as prop- 
erty; but Dr. J. B. Jeter of Virginia said: "None be- 
lieved that slavery per se was sinful." 



The Slavery Controversy 67 

Free Mission Society 

Accusations flew thick and fast. The radical Bap- 
tist sentiment found expression in a convention of 
eighteen men, May 4, 1843 at Tremont Temple, Boston, 
a church with the abolitionist Nathaniel Colver as 
pastor. The group completed its organization under 
the name of the American and Foreign Baptist Mis- 
sion Society, but the name was later changed to the 
American Baptist Free Mission Society. The Society 
voiced a protest against the lack of church control 
over the mission societies, rejected titles such as "Doc- 
tor of Divinity" and opposed secret fraternities, but 
the fact that first of all it avowed no connection with 
slaveholders made it full grown over night. If all the 
anti-slavery leaders were not members of it, they car- 
ried its spirit far and near. 

Jacob Knapp and Disorganization 

Jacob Knapp was one of the firebrands who lighted 
many a fire in the major cities of America. As a 
popular evangelist he was engaged to conduct a meet- 
ing in Richmond in 1843. After he had preached for 
about five weeks in the First and Second churches, he 
preached his usual sermon against slavery. Already 
Doctor Jeter had been censured because his slave, 
Davy, had on a much-patched overcoat. Jacob Knapp 
adds that a committee waited on him with the de- 
mand that he desist from mentioning the subject of 
slavery. He refused to do that and with some of 
his laundry still wet left Richmond on an early morn- 
ing train to avoid any further difficulties. 



68 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Fuller- Wayland Debate 

While a battle of words was being waged, Richard 
Fuller of South Carolina replied to some abolition 
statements appearing in the Christian Reflector in 
1844. To sustain his Southern position, he quoted 
Francis Wayland's Elements of Moral Science. Doctor 
Wayland's reply precipitated the logomachy through 
the press on Domestic Slavery Considered as a Scrip- 
tural Institution, in which Doctor Fuller upheld slav- 
ery and Doctor Wayland opposed it. Unlike the cur- 
rent discussions of the times this well-known con- 
troversy was less bitter and more respectful of the 
personalities of the supporters of both views. 

A Divided Denomination 

The testing ground of the whole matter was in the 
Triennial Convention of 1844. With great unanimity 
the Convention resolved "That in cooperating to- 
gether as members of this Convention in the work of 
Foreign Missions, we disclaim all sanction, either ex- 
pressed or implied, whether of slavery or of anti-slav- 
ery; but, as individuals, we are perfectly free both to 
express and to promote elsewhere, our own views on 
these subjects in a Christian manner and spirit." The 
climax was reached subsequently when a slaveholding 
missionary among the Cherokees was retired, and 
when distrust and misrepresentation became gener- 
al. The Alabama State Convention wrote the Board 
asking whether slaveholders were entitled to appoint- 
ment as missionaries. The Board replied in Decem- 
ber: "If, however, any one should offer himself as a 



The Slavery Controversy 69 

missionary, having slaves, and should insist on re- 
taining them as his property, we could not appoint 
him. One thing is certain, we can never be a party 
to any arrangement which would imply approbation 
of slavery." 

The facts were that in spite of the conciliatory 
policy of the denominational agencies, the Southern 
members were gradually withdrawing, and the bodies 
were embarrassed by debt within and foes of slavery 
without. The Home Mission Society in its meeting in 
April, 1845, had to consider the request of the State 
Convention of Georgia for the appointment of a slave- 
holding missionary. The Society then thought that 
it was expedient for its Northern and Southern mem- 
bers to function as separate organizations. 

Organization of Southern Baptist Convention 

/ 
Thereupon, the Virginia Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society issued a call for the Southern churches to 
meet in Augusta, Georgia, on May 8, 1845, where the 
Southern Baptist Convention was formed. The North- 
ern Baptists continued the Triennial Convention which 
became known as the American Baptist Missionary 
Union. Thus among the denomination there were 
three groups of Baptists, instead of two as all histo- 
rians point out — the Northern agencies, and the 
Southern Convention, and the Free Mission Society. 
The third group, the radical minority, had challenged 
the denomination with a sharp distinction between a 
gospel that sought the redemption of society and one 
that would maintain the existing social order. 



CHAPTER VI 

NORTHERN BAPTISTS 

The Missionary Union 

The Missionary Union began to rally its constitu- 
ency to pay an indebtedness of $40,000 and to support 
the mission stations. With the venerable Adoniram 
Judson at the first session in 1845 interest was so 
heightened that the Union could begin anew free of 
debt. Edward Bright was appointed corresponding 
secretary in 1846 and for nine years firmly estab- 
lished the work. Beginning with 109 missionaries, 
123 native helpers, 79 churches with about 50,000 
members, and 56 schools with 1,350 pupils in non- 
Christian lands and in Europe, the work advanced in 
1930 to 712 missionaries, 10,296 native helpers, 2,311 
churches, 276,408 members, 3,920 schools with 151,- 
993 pupils, and 94 hospitals in non-Christian lands 
alone. The annual income of $82,302.95 in 1845 had 
increased to $1,744,533.88 in 1930 with total assets of 
nearly $11,000,000. The 126 mission stations have 
been grouped into eight fields, continuing the Burma, 
Assam, South India, Bengal-Orissa, and China mis- 
sions from the Triennial Convention and adding mis- 
sions in Japan (1872), Belgian Congo (1884), and the 
Philippine Island (1900). 

70 



Northern Baptists 71 

John N. Murdock 

All but the last of these fields were developed dur- 
ing the incumbency of Dr. John N. Murdock who 
served as corresponding secretary from 1863 to 1892. 
During that period the mission churches, mission- 
aries, and income were more than tripled. Yet with a 
relatively small income the Union was extraordinarily 
successful because of its methods which were pecu- 
liar to that day, but which all missionary experience 
has vindicated. Instead of multiplying missionaries 
with a few native workers, the Union employed as 
many native helpers as possible along with as few 
as one misisonary. With prophetic vision Secretary 
Murdock advanced other methods which were severely 
criticized as they estranged friends and whole groups 
of Baptists. There was great emphasis on training 
for missionary service. 

The Union and Negro Baptists 

During those times the Negro Baptists twice re- 
fused overtures of the Union for cooperation, prefer- 
ring an independent rather than an auxiliary organi- 
zation. Seemingly the distinction between the Union 
and the Foreign Mission Convention (Negro) was 
one of preparation rather than of race, for President 
Love of the Convention called special attention in 
1890 to the fact "that by some means unknown to this 
Convention all of the scholars from the schools of the 
Home Mission Society who go to Africa go to the Con- 
go, which is under the Missionary Union." 1 



1. Minutes Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, 1886, 14, 
32; ibid, 1888, 11-14, 20; ibid, 1890, 10. 



Sig.— 6 



72 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



Missionary Achievements 

The missionaries were highly prepared, in many 
cases able to make lasting philological contributions 
to the indigenous language, as Francis Mason had done 
in translating the Scriptures for the Karens, and 
Nathan Brown, for the Assamese and Japanese. Many 
were decorated for distinguished services by foreign 
governments. They were able to maintain a high 
standard in thousands of schools of all kinds. None 
of these schools is more important than the college at 
Rangoon, Burma, and that at Ongole, India, respec- 
tively affiliated with the University at Calcutta and 
at Madras, and the Shanghai College, supported by 
both Northern and Southern Baptists. Whatever in- 
tellectual, religious, civilizing, and moral effects have 
followed the activities of the Union are due to the 
splendid fitness of the missionaries for their tasks. 

Revivals in India and Africa 

It is fortunate that the oft-repeated suggestions to 
relinquish important mission stations did not carry. 
After thirty years of little success among the Telu- 
gus of India great revivals occurred, and there were 
4000 Christians in 1876, most of whom came in dur- 
ing the decade previous. Dr. J. E. Clough, the mis- 
sionary, alleviated the famine that ravished the field 
the next year and on one day, July 3, 1878, baptized 
2222 in the Gundalucuma River. During two months 
new Christians totaled 9,147. The "Pentecost on the 
Congo" began with the missionary labors of Rev. 



Northern Baptists 73 



Henry Richards at Banza Manteke when hundreds 
professed Christ there and in surrounding districts. 
Not minimizing the other labors of the Union, its 
evangelistic endeavors have become preeminent. Na- 
tive churches, able to stand alone, are everywhere en- 
couraged. 

Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 

Women have sustained special auxiliary relations to 
the Missionary Union, which became the American 
Baptist Foreign Mission Society in 1910. The Wom- 
an's Baptist Foreign Mission Society with headquar- 
ters in Boston and the Woman's Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sion Society of the West with headquarters in Chica- 
go were organized in 1871. Since 1914 these bodies 
have consolidated as the Woman's American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society, and now it appropriates 
nearly $400,000 annually for mission work. 

Free Mission Society 

The Free Mission Society sent missionaries to Haiti 
in 1847, thinking that they would raise up Negroes 
who would evangelize Africa. Work was begun in 
Canada, and New York Central College was started, 
both of which were to train workers for Africa. It 
all failed though William P. Newman went to Haiti in 
1859 after laboring eleven years in Canada, and 
Chauncey Leonard of ¥/ashington and Mahomah, a 
native African from Brazil, went to Africa. Estranged 
from the other denominational agencies of the North 
though vindicated by emancipation in their protest 



74 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

against African enslavement, the Free Mission Society 
saw little reason to exist after the Civil War. Every 
year members were withdrawing from the Society 
while Negroes were joining in large numbers. Plans 
were offered from time to time to identify the Free 
Mission work with one of the Negro conventions. The 
mission property at Port au Prince, Haiti, was relin- 
quished to the Consolidated Convention in 1871, and 
the next year the Society voted to dissolve when its 
debts were paid. It existed nominally until 1875, hav- 
ing transferred its best work and missionaries, the 
Japan mission, to the Missionary Union in 1872. 

Mission Work Among Negroes 

"Before the cartridge box had ended its deadly 
work, before the ballot box was opened to the freed- 
man, in the churches of the North the contribution 
box was going its rounds for offerings" to enlighten 
Negroes. Beginning operations in Washington and 
Alexandria, before the Reconstruction the Free Mis- 
sion Society had 25 missionaries at the South. The 
Home Mission Society began work in 1862 and the 
National Theological Institute and University com- 
menced its activities in 1864. Soon after emancipa- 
tion the Home Mission Board of the Free Will Baptists 
during its first six years sent and sustained for work 
among the freedmen 66 different "pious and well- 
educated" teachers and 33 ministers as missionaries. 
Tens of thousands of Bibles were distributed by the 
American Bible Union. Seven Sunday school mis- 
sionaries were working exclusively among the freed- 
men under the auspices of the Publication Society,, 



Northern Baptists 75 

whose chief contribution, however, was in preparing 
and supplying elementary religious literature. The 
First Reader for Freedmen and The Freedman's Book 
of Christian Doctrine were prepared by 1865. 

Early Institutes 

As the religion of Jesus spread over the routes made 
safe by the conquests of the Roman Army, and as 
Protestantism in Germany was assured in the wake of 
the advancing Gustavus Adolphus, so in the South 
Negro schools grew up in the centers where Northern 
arms were victorious. They were distinct echoes of the 
small denominational college idea, which accordingly 
were called institutes, seminaries, and later colleges, 
and universities even when the emancipated millions 
knew nothing of the elementary subjects of learning. 
Reading and writing and arithmetic as well as Latin 
and Greek had places in the regular curricula. Some- 
times without a building, these institutions were mere- 
ly visionary. 

Contributions of Northern Philanthropists 

The amount of information that the Negro gained 
was negligible compared with the spirit of the move- 
ment which they immediately caught. The leaders 
came in touch with real New England culture. Many 
of them for the first time were given names. The 
principle of altruism, instilled into the life stream 
of that race, has today become a test of the educated. 
They learned self-reliance and were inspired with con- 
fidence in themselves. They were urged to take ad- 



76 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

vantage of every opportunity to establish the sanctity 
of the home. Everyone who was taught anything 
was commissioned to teach that to others, and so the 
influence spread to thousands. It is with reference 
to the contribution of the spirit that Negroes appraise 
the work of the Northern philanthropists. 

Permanent Mission Schools 

In 1869 the work of the National Theological Insti- 
tute and University was merged with that of the 
Home Mission Society. While some of the early 
schools were relinquished, others became permanent 
blessings to the Negro race. Led by Morehouse Col- 
lege of the seven major schools to which the Society 
has made considerable appropriations (Virginia Union 
University, 1865, continuing Wayland Seminary, 
Washington, D. C, and Richmond Institute; Shaw 
University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1865; Morehouse 
College, Atlanta, Georgia, 1867; Leland College, Baker, 
Louisiana, 1869; Benedict College, Columbia, South 
Carolina, 1870; Jackson (Mississippi) College, 1877; 
and Bishop College, Marshall, Texas, 1881), all but 
one have Negro presidents. The Free Will Baptists 
support Storer Junior College, Harpers Ferry, West 
Virginia, 1867. In 1931 in all of the schools there were 
197 teachers of whom 177 were Negro, and 1836 stu- 
dents of college grade. 

The Teachers 

Connected with each of these schools is some fas- 
cinating story. They were begun by pioneers yet un- 
sung whose patient bearing of prejudice and endur- 



Northern Baptists 11 

ance of hardships are still remembered by this gen- 
eration; they are continued by modern disciples, white 
and black, with distinguished lineages, who are com- 
pleting the acts of the apostles. Henry Martyn Tupper 
at Shaw, Charles H. Corey, Richmond Seminary, D. 
W. Phillips, Roger Williams, and G. M. P. King, Way- 
land, gave their lives in this service. 

Home Mission Society and the Negro 

Beginning with an expenditure of $2000 the So- 
ciety has expended over $100,000 annually for many 
years for those institutions, not to mention their 
other missionary work among the Negro churches of 
the West and South. The investment was more than 
material. The success of Wayland Seminary ac- 
counted for the founding of Howard, which has be- 
come a Federal University for Negroes. The invest- 
ment has meant the better understanding of the races. 
The schools helped diminish illiteracy and stimulated 
the common school system. In the words of Henry L. 
Morehouse, corresponding secretary during the de- 
velopment of the schools, the expenditure confirmed 
the belief "in the thorough humanity of the black man, 
capable of culture, capable of high attainments under 
proper conditions and with sufficient time, a being not 
predestined to be simply a hewer of wood and drawer 
of water for the white race, foreordained to irrevo- 
cable and everlasting inferiority but a man, whose 
mind and soul may expand indefinitely to comprehend 
the great things of God, and to take a useful and 
honorable place in the world's activities." 



78 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Other Work of the Home Mission Society 

As important as this work has been it is not the only- 
interest of Society. Where the need has been greatest 
from Alaska to Mexico and in the islands of the At- 
lantic have missionary labors received emphasis from 
time to time. 



In the West 

In 1845 Ezra Fisher and Hezekiah Johnson suffered 
great hardships while completing their long journey 
to Oregon. Before and after the discovery of gold in 
the West, by 1861, California, New Mexico, Nevada, 
Colorado, and Montana had been reached. As soon as 
the events of the Civil War permitted, the Western 
missions were reinforced and extended by 1871 to in- 
clude the Dakotas, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah. The 
completion of the railroads greatly faciliated this 
work; so that by 1874 there were 217 laborers in the 
West, and in the eighties nearly every western state 
and territory and British Columbia had been reached. 
Hardly a church of present usefulness was not aided 
in this territory by the Church Edifice Loan Fund 
(1862) and the Church Edifice Gift Fund (1881), 
called into being for this purpose. 

Among Non-English Speaking Peoples 

Moreover, the hundreds of thousands of non-Eng- 
lish speaking peoples in the West and East offered 
large opportunities to the Society. Before the fifties 
there had been beginnings among the Welch, Germans, 



Northern Baptists 79 

Scandinavians, and French Canadians. Evangelistic 
efforts were extended to the French Canadians in New 
England in 1869. Non-English speaking Baptist 
groups have increased and organized until in 1930 
there were fourteen conventions of them. The Gen- 
eral Conference of German Baptist Churches of North 
America with headquarters in Chicago is the oldest. 
This body was begun in 1865 and has nine sectional 
conferences which meet annually while the body it- 
self meets triennially. It has its own missionary, edu- 
cation (in connection with the Rochester-Colgate 
Theological Seminary), and publishing societies and 
orphan's home besides pension fund for ministers, old 
people's home, hospital, and several girls' homes. It 
reports 26 associations, 270 churches, 303 ordained 
ministers, and 36,025 members. The General Confer- 
ence of the Swedish (1879) and of the Danish Baptists 
(1910) is the next in size. The former has 19 sec- 
tional conferences in the United States and Canada 
with 303 churches, 217 ministers, and 33,637 mem- 
bers. It meets annually while the Danish Conference 
with 4 associations, 34 churches, 50 ministers, and 
4,127 members meets triennially. A total of 12 asso- 
ciations, 317 churches, 241 ordained ministers, and 
18,328 members are enrolled among the French, Ital- 
ian, Finnish, Hungarian, Norwegian, Czechosolvakian, 
Polish, Roumanian, Portugese, Russian, and Ukrainian 
Baptists who have one association each, and the Mexi- 
can Baptists who have two associations. The Inter- 
national Seminary (1920) in East Orange, New Jersey, 
is supported by the Home Mission Society to train 
workers for these churches. 



80 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Among Orientals 

Labors among the Chinese and Japanese have been 
fraught with difficulties in California and cities like 
Chicago and New York. There are 4 churches, 4 min- 
isters, and 270 members among the Chinese, and 5 
churches, 8 ministers, and 529 members among the 
Japanese reporting, and some English speaking 
churches have special departments for Orientals as 
well as non-English speaking Americans. 

Indian Mission 

With the assumption of the Indian mission from the 
Missionary Union in 1885 a new field was opened for 
the Home Mission Society. Immediately a secretary 
for this department was appointed, and the work was 

reorganized and invigorated, especially in Indian Ter- 
ritory and Oklahoma. Bacone College was begun in 
1880 and is surrounded by government secondary 
schools in the Cherokee Nation, the Chotaw Nation, 
and at the Wichita Agency. There were 17 instruc- 
tors and 304 students in 1930 in Bacone College. 
Evangelistic efforts of the Society have touched a 
great number of tribes. 

In Latin America 

The expansion of American interests into Latin 
America has opened still other fields for the Society's 
operations. The seed of seven years' labors in Mexico 
had borne fruit by 1869 when the mission was reen- 
forced. Retrenchment became necessary after four 



Northern Baptists 81 

years, and the mission was not resumed until 1881. By 
agreement with the Southern Baptists Porto Rico and 
Eastern Cuba were entered in 1899. In this century 
the work has been extended to El Salvador, Haiti, and 
Nicaragua. Of a total of 64,436 Baptists in Central 
America and the West Indies in 1931, 22,055 were in 
the Society's missions in Latin America. 

City Mission Societies 

The need of mission work in the great cities of 
America came to the attention of the Society in 1893, 
and it was begun first in cooperation with the City Mis- 
sion Society of Chicago in 1898 and now is carried on 
in twenty-two metropolitan centers scattered from 
Boston to San Francisco. 

Woman's Home Mission Society 

The Woman's American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety, continuing the one in the East and the one in 
the West, both organized in 1877 and consolidated in 
1909, has mobilized the women for service along the 
line of the Home Mission Society. Its distinctive 
work is educational with a Training School in Chica- 
go and generous support of Spelman College, Atlanta, 
Georgia, the premier college for Negro women in the 
world. Local women's missionary societies are numer- 
ous enough to form twelve district bodies. 

Historical Societies 

The Backus Historical Society at Boston, 1853, and 
The American Baptist Historical Society at Chester, 



82 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Pennsylvania, 1862, have within their libraries rare 
documents, reports, and general works of the denomi- 
nation. The endeavors of the Baptists in the fields of 
Book Publishing, Religious Education, Sunday School 
Publishing, and Bible and Field work have in the 
period under review been prosecuted by The American 
Baptist Publication Society. 

Publication Society 

The Publication Society had its beginning in Wash- 
ington, D. C, in 1824, as the Baptist General Tract 
Society, chiefly through the inspiration of Noah K. 
Davis, a young pastor of Salisbury, Maryland. Not 
until the name was changed to The American Baptist 
Publication and Sunday School Society in 1840 and 
shortened to The American Baptist Publication So- 
ciety in 1844 did the work seem assured. Since 1826 
its headquarters have remained in Philadelphia where 
the Society has grown from modest quarters, rented 
for one hundred dollars annuallly, to its own separate 
building for headquarters and for printing. Branch 
houses, formerly located in the South as well as in 
the North, have been continued only at Chicago, Bos- 
ton, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Toronto, 
but its field of labor is national and international. 

Benjamin Griffith, Corresponding Secretary 

The Society has been fortunate in the selection of 
very capable executive secretaries who have formu- 
lated its polices. The administration of the popular 
Benjamin Griffith, whose long and efficient services for 



Northern Baptists 83 

thirty-five years until his death in 1893, has been an 
abiding influence. During his incumbency the organi- 
zation of the Society was perfected, and its building 
program launched, colportage and missionary labors 
both here and abroad were vigorously pushed, the So- 
ciety became a prominent publisher of books as well 
as of Sunday school literature, the Bible work of the 
denomination was committed to it, chapel car evan- 
gelism was begun, and the organization of the young 
Baptists of America was perfected. 

Baptist Young People's Union 

Already there were many churches with Baptist 
young people's organizations, especially in the West. 
Eight years after the formation of the Society of 
Christian Endeavor (1881) the Baptists of Nebraska 
organized the first state-wide denominational conven- 
tion of young people. In 1891 the Publication Society 
called a conference on the subject in Philadelphia on 
April 22, and at a meeting in Chicago on July 8, the 
Baptist Young People's Union of America was organ- 
ized and included the young Baptists of Canada and 
the United States. The movement has had a phenom- 
enal growth, registering 6000 delegates at the 1930 
Convention in San Francisco. 

Northern Baptist Convention 

There was a diversity of tasks but a unanimity of 
spirit among the Northern Baptists, for many of their 
agencies had been accustomed to hold their annual 
meetings at the same time and place. In 1907 at 



84 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Washington, D. C, they went further by organizing 
the Northern Baptist Convention ''to serve the com- 
mon interests of the entire denomination." Member- 
ship is granted any Baptist church or convention in 
the United States not on a financial but on a representa- 
tive basis. The denominational societies became co- 
operating agencies of the Convention and have in re- 
cent years been greatly assisted by the National Coun- 
cil of Northern Baptist Men which was begun in 1923. 
Since 1926 the Publication Society has financed itself 
through its business and by special gifts apart from 
contributions to the Northern Baptist Convention. 

Convention Boards 

Three new Boards were organized by the Conven- 
tion. The Ministers and Missionaries' Benefit Board, 
merging many relief associations and incorporated in 
1913, was the first. In 1930 its investments were in 
excess of seventeen million dollars, and it aided ap- 
proximately two thousand people. Mr. John D. 
Rockefeller has given several million dollars to the 
fund. The Board of Education, incorporated in 1920, 
continues the American Baptist Education Society, or- 
ganized in 1888. For over two decades previously the 
need for a supervisory educational agency of the de- 
nomination was felt. With the readiness of Mr. 
Rockefeller to found the University of Chicago the 
Education Society undertook to raise the necessary 
additional funds, to affiliate nearby small colleges and 
to provide financial assistance in the form of endow- 
ments to institutions in the West and South. With 
the founding of the undenominational General Edu- 



Northern Baptists 85 

cation Board in 1902 the Society was bereft of funds 
and a program. It took over a decade to find a new 
appeal — the encouragement and support of Baptist 
pastors at the state universities. This work the Board 
is continuing jointly with representatives of higher 
educational communities. Their investigations, sur- 
veys, reports, and particular interest in missionary 
education open avenues for the future of the Board. 
The Board of Missionary Cooperation was organized in 
1924 and represents all the cooperative organizations, 
boards, state conventions, and city mission societies. 
It regulates expenditures for the different organiza- 
tions according to an approved budget. 

Convention Policies 

The fact that Northern Baptist have made material 
and spiritual contributions to the racial families of the 
world is a splendid achievement, and their liberalizing 
spirit sets them apart. The Northern Convention has 
fostered the most cordial fraternal relations with the 
Southern Baptists. They participate in inter-denomi- 
national cooperation, being a constituent member of 
the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America (1905) and of the Advisory Committee on a 
World Conference on Questions of Faith and Order, 
begun by the Protestant Episcopal Church, and hav- 
ing representatives on the Board of Missionary Prepa- 
ration. After seven years' effort in 1911 the Free 
Baptists consolidated their missionary funds and work 
with the Northern Baptists agencies. With united ef- 
fort the two denominations, now one, carry on the once 
Free Baptist newspaper, The Morning Star, their 



86 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

educational work in institutions like Hillsdale 
College, Michigan, 1844, and Bates College, Maine, 
1864, and state conventions and churches. 

Status of Northern Baptists 

Members, wealth, and prestige have come with the 
years, so that in 1930 the Northern Baptists reported 
8,193 churches, 8,786 ordained ministers, and 1,410,- 
325 members with 7,769 church houses and property 
valued at over 215 million dollars. No longer is it 
considered a mark of ignorance and shame to be a Bap- 
tist. Baptists are one of the intelligent, and progres- 
sive forces of the religious life of America. 



OQO 



CHAPTER VII 



SOUTHERN BAPTISTS 

Missionary Boards 

The task confronting the Southern Convention was 
one of organization. At the first session the Foreign 
Mission Board and the Domestic Mission Board were 
formed with headquarters at Richmond, Virginia, and 
at Marion, Alabama, respectively. 

Chinese Missions 

J. L. Shuck and T. J. Roberts of the Triennial Con- 
vention at once accepted missionary appointment to 
China. Others joined them to embrace a work that 
must now be divided into three districts: South 
China around Canton, opening in 1845, where R. H. 
Graves faithfully spent over forty years; and Central 
China, Shanghai, 1847, with M. T. Yates; and North 
China, Shantung, 1860, from which station valuable 
workers have established the Interior China Mission 
(1905). The Pakhoi mission was added in 1914. The 
type of labor has been evangelistic, literary, industrial, 
educational, and medical with a total in 1931 of 206 
missionaries, 467 native helpers, 1,462 baptisms, 32,- 
663 members, 142 schools with 10,217 students, and 

87 

Sig.— 7 



88 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

15 hospital buildings and 8 dispensaries through which 
140,846 patients were treated. 

African Mission 

When the Southern Baptist Convention was organ- 
ized the Boards of the Missionary Union and the 
Southern Convention at once began corresponding re- 
garding the transfer of missionary operations in Afri- 
ca. A missionary was sent to Liberia in 1846, the same 
year that the Convention decided that it was advan- 
tageous to employ Negroes as missionaries. They 
paid those workers from $100 to $600 annually which 
was quite a contrast to the less than $100 paid by the 
Union, and so found no difficulty in attracting experi- 
enced laborers, which included a governor of one of 
the Liberian counties, a chief justice of the Supreme 
Court, a vice-president and a president of Liberia. 
Work, mostly evangelistic and educational, was carried 
on in Sierra Leone and the four counties of Liberia. 
When the mission was suspended at the outbreak of 
the Civil War, there were 24 churches and stations, 
15 pastors with 1258 members, 21 teachers, and 665 
pupils, all manned by Negroes and doing the most ef- 
fective mission work of the Southern Convention. 

In Yoruba 

Simultaneously with the Liberian Mission was be- 
gun the Yoruban mission, in 1850. The Missionary 
Union turned over its whole African work to the 
Southern Board in 1856, but the mission was hindered 
by the Civil War, native wars, persecution, and sick- 



Southern Baptists 89 

ness until 1875 when it was resumed by W. J. David 
and his Negro helper, W. W. Colley. The evangelis- 
tic, educational, industrial, and medical work is now 
jointly conducted by the Board and the Nigerian (na- 
tive) Convention. For 1931 there were 29 mission- 
aries, 181 native helpers, 3,049 baptisms, 26,541 mem- 
bers, 55 schools with 3,343 students, and 9 hospitals 
and 2 dispensaries, treating 28,675 patients. 

Response of Southern Churches 

Since June of 1846 the Southern Baptist Missionary 
Journal, now the Foreign Mission Journal, has been 
published to make sentiment for the cause. If the fi- 
nancial returns are an index to the awakened interests, 
it is clear that the Baptists of the South have gained 
an enlarged missionary conception of kingdom work. 
Before the division the Southern Baptists had contrib- 
uted to the Triennial Convention in about thirty years 
$215,856.28. In the first thirty years of the Southern 
Convention the Foreign Mission Board had received 
$791,821.10. This progress is attributable in large 
measure to the fine response of the Southern churches 
to the dedication of the life of the corresponding sec- 
retary, J. B. Taylor, to this task from 1846 until his 
death in 1872. He was succeeded by H. A. Tupper, 
the historian, who was equally efficient for the next 
twenty-one years, and then by the enthusiastic R. J. 
Willingham. 

Summary of Foreign Missionary Activity 

Besides labors in Europe mission work was begun 
in Mexico in 1880; Brazil, 1882; Japan, 1889; Pales- 



90 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

tine-Syria, 1895; Argentina, 1903; and Chile, 1917. 
The earliest missionary appointee to Mexico labored 
only a few months before he was murdered in Decem- 
ber of 1880. The most promising mission station in 
South America is in Brazil where labors are extended 
far up the Amazon River. The north and south dis- 
tricts report 36,335 members. After the disappearance 
of the "Edwin Forrest" in 1860, the ship on which a 
missionary and wife were lost, no further attention 
was turned toward Japan until October, 1889, when 
four missionaries sailed. The labors in Palestine- 
Syria center around 3 churches; in Argentina, 60 
churches, and in Chile, 37 churches. In 1931 the re- 
ceipts of the Board exclusive of borrowed money were 
$805,578.31. In all the mission stations the Foreign 
Mission Board has oversight of 964 churches of which 
375 are self-supporting, 110, 318 members, 315 schools 
with 20, 577 students, and 28 hospitals and 13 dispen- 
saries which treated 170,697 patients. 

These statistics do not tell the complete story, for 
bound up with each station is the poetic recital of de- 
velopments of civilization, won always by sacrifice and 
often by martyrdom. Interest in missions at the 
South has increased by the establishment of the 
Foreign Mission Board, and the Domestic Board has 
directed the missionary spirit to triumphant achieve- 
ments at the home base. 

Interest in Negroes 

The first instruction by the Convention charged the 
Domestic Board "to take all prudent measures for the 
religious instruction of our colored population." Rich 



Southern Baptists 91 

masters had chapels built and paid preachers to serve 
the slaves on their plantations regularly. As Baptists 
in the South before 1830 had several Negro itinerant 
ministers who preached a gospel acceptable to slaves 
and masters, so prosperous white churches and asso- 
ciations then had one or more missionaries who took 
special interest in evangelizing Negroes. Pastors gen- 
erally were encouraged to preach at least on Sunday 
afternoons to Negroes, and many of them responded 
then as now. Many a minister began his ministry in 
that way, assured of a large and responsive audience. 
Richard Fuller had said : "I had resolved, when first 
called to the ministry, to confine my labors wholly to 
our colored population. I was prevented by the hand 
of God." 1 

The Response 

Negroes swarmed the Baptist churches, so that by 
1850 it is estimated that there were 295,250 Negro 
Baptists, one in every twelve of the Negro population. 
Accommodations had to be provided for them, like 
separate times of meeting, and new and remodelled 
churches v/ith wings or galleries. It is interesting to 
view survivals of those churches to see how the pres- 
ence of the Negro influenced the architecture. The 
galleries opened on to the vestibule or in the street but 
not in the main auditorium. 

Methods Since 1830 

Generally, in the rural districts Negroes remained 
a part of the white churches, but in the cities Negro 



1. Cuthbert, Life of Richard Fuller, 105. 



92 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

churches were separately constituted and maintained 
under the watchcare of some white organization. That 
organization might be an association like the Bethle- 
hem of Alabama which took the African (Mobile) 
Church as a branch, or a church, like the First, Rich- 
mond, which set apart the African Church with the 
distinguished Robert Ryland, president of Richmond 
College, as pastor. The Negroes paid him $600 a year, 
and he rendered them a distinct service for twenty- 
five years, during which time he wrote a catechism 
for them and baptized some 3832. 

Reasons for Activity 

As beneficient and sacrificial as these relations ap- 
pear to be, they do not exclude the element of fear 1 
which had also been so conspicuously evident in the 
evangelization of the Indian nor the recognition of 
such facts as these: that Baptists knew that the black 
codes were not enforced, thereby causing them to wink 
at lawlessness, 2 that while Christianity would make 
Negroes docile, as contemporary literature during 
that period delighted to picture them, it also enhanced 
the market value of slaves, 3 and that one steady 
stream of fugitive blacks poured into the North to es- 
cape from Christian slavery. Yet chiefly because of the 
criticism of the South by the abolitionists Baptists in 
the South thought the time opportune to show that 



1. Tupper, Two Centuries of the First Baptist Church of 
South Carolina, 318. 

2. Minutes (South Carolina) State Baptist Convention, 
1866, 239. 

3. Parsons, Inside View of Slavery, 272. 



Southern Baptists 93 

they were no less Christian or unmindful of the well- 
being of the Negro than Northern people. 1 

Dependent Negro Churches 

Moreover, accepting Negro churches as branches of 
white organizations obscured the religious history of 
Negro Baptists. In Petersburg, Virginia, the Harrison 
Street Church, mostly of slave members, acquiesced 
in this subordinate relation, but the Gilfield Church, 
mostly of free Negroes, was obstreperous. The former 
church outstripped the latter in growth and in claims 
of priority. In Norfolk the First Church which was Ne- 
gro had to content itself with the name of the Bute 
Street Church. Andrew Marshall, in Savannah, 
Georgia, would not relinquish his pulpit at the First 
African Church; and so a minority of the mem- 
bers formed a church and were encouraged to 
become a branch of the white church which was 
received into the Sunbury Association in 1833. 2 Since 
the Civil War this group as the F'irst Bryan Church 
has maintained its contention of priority in Savannah. 

Renewed Labors 

It seemed that religious principles which had been 
planted in the heart of the Negro were held by them 
in all sincerity, for they remained loyal to their mas- 
ters throughout the War. By no means was the Ne- 



1. Minutes Virginia Portsmouth Baptist Association, 1839, 
13. 

2. Record Book First Baptist Church, 1822-1834, 189; 
Minutes Sunbury (Georiga) Association, 1833-1860. 



94 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

gro to be estranged from the Southern people or to 
be inspired by fanatical spirits or to be swept into 
other denominations or to be influenced by "almost 
every plausible error." Thus to instruct the Negro 
was a clear call to duty especially since the children of 
Southern people would thereby be saved from his 
vices. 1 In spite of the fact that the Southern Bap- 
tists were impoverished, they felt capable of taking 
care of the needs of the Negro. 

Evangelistic and Educational Work 

They looked upon the abolitionists as meddlers ; they 
ostracized the carpet-baggers and school-teachers, 
"emissaries of Satan," as one called them, who also 
added that if it had not been for the Federal bayonet 
there would have been something besides ostracism. 
Yet that same minister confessed that the Home Mis- 
sion Society supplemented his salary as preacher to 
the Negro church at Williamsburg, Virginia, without 
which "needed help so generously conferred" he could 
not have easily paid his expenses. 2 State after state 
devised plans to aid the Negro, and the South Caro- 
lina Convention went so far as to state that if Negro 
ministers could support themselves at Greenville, they 
would be permitted to receive special lessons from the 
professors at the newly formed Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary. 3 Thus the Southern Convention, 



1. Paxton, A History of the Baptists of Louisiana, 452- 
458. 

2. Mss. Hall, March 8, 1890; Letter Hall to Rvland, March 
15, 1890. 

3. Minutes (South Carolina) State Baptist Convention, 
1865, 1866; Baptist Year Book, 1868, 87f. 



Southern Baptists 95 

which was already receiving financial aid from the 
Home Mission Society, sent a large number of mis- 
sionaries among the Negroes and resolved in 1867 "as 
heretofore to preach to them on suitable occasions, and 
endeavor to establish and maintain Sunday schools, 
encourage day schools among them, and by every 
practical means seek to promote their temporal and 
eternal happiness." 

Recent Negro Work 

Throughout their history Negro Baptists have not 
been left without the helpful influence of Southern 
Baptists whether in encouraging their first efforts to 
publish a Sunday school literature or in providing dol- 
lar for dollar in home mission enterprises. The Good 
Samaritan Hospital in Selma, Alabama, is maintained 
for Negroes, and there are from 25 to 857 Negro pa- 
tients in four other hospitals operated by Baptists of 
the South; they employ six workers among Negroes 
and cooperate with the National Baptist Convention 
in supporting the American Baptist Theological Sem- 
inary. Forty-three acres of land was secured in the 
suburbs of Nashville, adjacent to the site of Roger 
Williams University, where the first unit of the Semi- 
nary was opened in 1924. The building costing 
$75,000 has since been abandoned (1931) for a loca- 
tion within the city which has been rented. Although 
the project is not yet firmly established, the Commis- 
sion is working tirelessly to make real the desire of 
the Convention to establish a school for Negro 
preachers, entertained as early as 1872. 



96 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Indian Work 

Work among Indians was done by the Indian Mission 
Association, Louisville, Kentucky, until 1855. At that 
time the Indian mission was transferred to the Home 
Board and has been restricted largely within Indian 
Territory and New Mexico. The Board has 21 workers 
and 40 churches or missions among the various tribes. 
"The membership among them, in proportion to the 
population is now equal to that of our strongest Bap- 
tist states. They have been reclaimed from barbarism. 
They support a well-organized government. They have 
opened farms, builded houses, established schools, and 
are prepared, if they so desired, to enter this great 
federation of States as a constituent member." 

On the Frontiers 

Because of their labors for others the Southern Bap- 
tists have added strength to their own numbers and 
resources. They have developed and aided churches 
in the cities and towns, gradually have won the co- 
operation and support of their constituency and have 
kept step with the steady march of population into 
Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, and Florida. Up to the 
time of the Civil War the Board had appointed 700 
missionaries, added 15,000 members and 200 new 
churches, erected 200 church buildings, and expended 
$3,000,000. Russell Holman was the efficient secre- 
tary during most of the formative years. 

Reconstruction and Afterwards 

It took fully two decades to recover from the econom- 
ic and moral casualties of the Civil War, but by the 
help of the Baptists in Maryland, Kentucky, and Mis- 



Southern Baptists 97 

souri, who escaped somewhat the rigors of war, and 
because of the devoted labors of Dr. M. T. Sumner, 
corresponding secertary, the Home Board was revived 
and infused with new life when it was removed from 
Marion to Atlanta, Georgia, in 1882. I. T. Tichenor left 
the presidency of the Alabama Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College to become secretary of the Board. To 
say that the missionary appointments increased from 
36 to 406 during a decade of his administration shows 
the efficiency of the secretary. 

Cuban Missions 

A work in Cuba was formally adopted by the Board 
in 1886. Already a church in Key West, Florida, had 
sponsored a mission to Cuban women and children of 
that city since 1884. Pastor W. B. Wood baptized up- 
wards of forty of the Cuban people living in that city, 
some of whom returned to Havana. There persons of 
like faith and order were found who had been called 
together by A. J. Diaz during the two previous years. 
Diaz, a former Cuban revolutionary captain, had 
thrown himself into the sea some years earlier rather 
than surrender. Picked up by a passing vessel, he was 
finally taken to New York where his exposure in the 
ocean compelled hospital treatment. There Diaz was 
hopefully converted through the sympathies of a 
young Baptist woman who read him a Spanish New 
Testament. After his baptism into the fellowship of 
the Willougby Avenue Church, Brooklyn, he returned 
to preach his new found faith, supporting himself by 
the practice of medicine which he learned in New 
York. When Pastor Wood visited Havana under the 



98 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Home Board in 1886 some two hundred of Diaz's fol- 
lowers were found. The Baptists of Florida took a 
great interest in Cuba and ordained Diaz. Pastor Wood 
returned to Cuba to baptize some other followers and 
to organize the first Baptist church in Cuba on Jan- 
uary 26, 1886. A theater building, costing $75,000, 
was purchased by the Board for this Cuban church, 
and a school for girls and a hospital for women have 
since been established. Undaunted by almost insu- 
perable obstacles, including various revolutions and 
the Spanish-American War, the Cuban mission in 1931 
had extended its usefulness to practically the whole 
of the western half of the island with 42 workers of 
which 6 are American, 42 churches, and 3,421 mem- 
bers. 

Summary of Home Mission Activity 

Brief mention only can be made of the labors of the 
Home Board in behalf of the non-English speaking 
Americans with 38 workers and 122 churches, of the 
Schools and Good Will Centers, Deaf Mutes, Seamen's 
Institute, Rescue Mission, Mountain Mission and 
Schools, Jewish Evangelization, Field Work and 
Church Extension, all coming under the supervision 
of the Board. It is enough to remark that this Board 
in eighty-seven years of its history has employed 
41,062 missionaries who have baptized 785,500 per- 
sons. They have organized 8,570 churches and ex- 
pended $20,500,000 during this period. 

Sunday School Publishing Board 

The American Baptist Publication Society supplied 
the South with church literature until the new Sun- 



Southern Baptists 99 

day School Board with headquarters in Nashville was 
created in 1891. Prior to that the Bible Board, the 
Southern Publication Society, not organically con- 
nected with the Convention, and a Sunday School 
Board had become extinct. 

Dr. J. M. Frost proposed the revival of this Board 
and became the first secretary. Succeeded within a 
year by Dr. T. P. Bell, then assistant secretary of the 
Foreign Board, Dr. Frost was recalled in 1895. Under 
him the scope of the Board was enlarged to improv- 
ing Sunday-schools, making periodic literature, dis- 
tributing Bibles, and publication of books and tracts. 
Today all of these and other objects are fostered and 
the work of the Board is accomplished through De- 
partments with their own secretaries. The Board has 
associated Baptist Book Stores in seventeen cities and 
cooperates with stores in four other cities. 

Other Interests 

Beginning in 1918 with a gift of $100,000 from the 
Sunday School Board, the resources of the Relief and 
Annuity Board are now over $4,000,000. In 1931 Mr. 
Rockefeller gave $526,857.02. Headquarters are in 
Dallas, Texas, from which about fifteen hundred 
beneficiaries are aided annually. Some other interests 
of the Southern Baptists are the Baptist Brotherhood 
of the South (1907) with headquarters in Knoxville, 
Tennessee, and the annual summer Southern Baptist 
Assembly at Ridgecrest, North Carolina. There are 
commissions on Social Service (1908), Hospital (1914), 
Education (1927), and Promotion (1931). 



100 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Educational Commission 

The Southern Baptist Education Association has 
been in existence two decades, but the educational work 
of the Convention is prosecuted through the Educa- 
tional Commission that has taken the place of the Edu- 
cational Board. While the Commission seeks to cor- 
relate, survey, and report on the work of the 78 Bap- 
tist schools within the bounds of the Convention, the 
Convention has oversight of the Southern Baptist 
Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky ; the South- 
western Baptist Theological Seminary, Seminary Hill, 
Texas; the Bible Institute, New Orleans, Louisiana; 
and the American Baptist Theological Seminary, 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

The claims of a theological seminary came before 
the Convention in the beginning. The theological de- 
partments of the Baptist universities did not suffice. 
Singularly enough Dr. James P. Boyce, professor in 
the Theological Department of Furman University, 
himself a graduate of Brown and of Princeton Semi- 
nary, proposed the establishment of a distinct semi- 
nary at a meeting of an educational convention in 
Louisville in 1857. To the Baptist State Convention of 
South Carolina he submitted the plan for the estab- 
lishment of such a seminary at Greenville with $100,- 
000, from the Baptists of South Carolina, provided an 
identical amount would be raised from other states. 
The conditions were met at least by subscription, and 
in October, 1859, the Southern Baptist Theological 



Southern Baptists 101 



Seminary opened with 26 students and with a faculty 
of James P. Boyce, John A. Broadus, Basil Manly, Jr., 
and William Williams. It was hardly open two years 
before it was closed on account of the Civil War. After 
the war the Baptists of Kentucky were able to sup- 
port the Seminary better than the impoverished Caro- 
linians, and so it was moved to Louisville in 1877. 
After waiting sixty-seven years the Seminary has for 
its permanent home "The Beeches," a beautiful campus 
with accommodations for more than five hundred 
students. During 1931-2 there were 391 students and 
104 degree graduates of whom 56 received the degree 
of Th. M., and 17 the degree of Ph. D. In 1930 the Bap- 
tist Woman's Missionary Union Training School 
(1907) also at Louisville had 11 faculty members and 
130 students. 

i 

Other Theological Schools 

The newer Southwestern Theological Seminary, 
Seminary Hill, Texas, continuing the Bible Depart- 
ment of Baylor University, was established in 1908. In 
1931-2 it enrolled 353 regular and 208 correspondence 
students. It is co-educational. The Bible Institute, 
New Orleans, Louisiana, (1917) is also co-educational 
with 261 students about equally divided between the 
sexes. 

Woman's Missionary Union 

Thus it is that women have been recognized prom- 
inently in the Southern churches. The movement in 
this direction, however, is of recent date although as 



102 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

early as 1823 women's missionary societies were 
thriving in Alabama and Virginia. Inspired by the 
women of the North, and knowing of the successful 
local groups of women in the South, H. A. Tupper felt 
in 1872 that women might be helpful to the cause of 
foreign missions. From that time the subject was 
repeatedly before the Convention until in 1888 the 
Woman's Missionary Union became a distinct move- 
ment, auxiliary to all the work of the Convention. To- 
day there are 80,149 local organizations of the Union 
reaching boys and girls as well as women. Fully $2,- 
197,270.98 was contributed by these organizations 
during the calendar year of 1931. 

Ministers and Churches 

The development of the Southern Baptists has been 
due to the leaders who have remained in office long 
enough to develop the work and to the local constit- 
uency and preachers who supported the work as best 
they could. The preachers were warm hearted, virile 
men, who loved the people even though they were 
not adequately paid. They were conservative thinkers 
and doctrinal exponents whose chief duties were 
"winning and edifying the souls of men." They set the 
pulpit on fire. Scholars though some of them were, 
they never let the exactness of exegesis interfere with 
their enthusiasm of expression. Southern Baptists 
constitute a movement of the masses, the major Prot- 
estant denomination in the South with 3,770,645 
members, 21,420 churches, 23,431 ordained ministers, 
and property valued at over 213 million dollars in 1930. 



CHAPTER VIII 

NEGRO BAPTISTS 

Underground Railroad 

The Underground Railroad, a name given to secret 
agencies for helping Negroes escape from slavery, ren- 
dered great service to thousands of Negroes fleeing 
from the South. Leonard Grimes was converted and 
called to preach while serving a prison term for his 
exploits in that risky transportation. As pastor in 
Boston his organization became known as the "church 
of the fugitive slaves," many of whom went on to 
Canada after the drastic Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 
was passed. 

In Canada 

In Canada there were three Negro churches in the 
Haldimand Association, the largest being the First 
Church of Toronto, W. Christian, pastor, with 145 
members in 1845. Negroes had an association of their 
own, also. Edward Mitchell (1794-1872), the best pre- 
pared preacher in the Negro race, was laboring in 
those parts. Born in Martinique, West Indies, he was 
brought to Hanover, New Hampshire, by the Presi- 
dent of Dartmouth College, from which he was grad- 
uated Bachelor of Arts in August, 1828. He studied 
divinity and was ordained about 1831. After preach- 
ing five years to white congregations in New Hamp- 

103 

Sig.— 8 



104 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

shire and Vermont, he spent the rest of his life among 
his own people in Canada East around Eaton and 
Magog. He shares with John B. Russworm (Bowdoin, 
1828) the distinction of being the first known Negro 
to obtain a college degree in America. 

Emphasizing Education 

The most progressive Negro preachers were in the 
North. New life was given to the old churches, and 
new ones were established. The churches emphasized 
education, and institutions such as the First African, 
St. Louis, with a teacher from Glasgow University, 
and the African, Boston, with the educated Prince 
Saunders, had special accommodations for a day school. 
Through the munificent gift and wise guidance of 
William Crane in 1855 the Saratoga Street Church, 
Baltimore, Noah Davis, pastor, worshipped in what 
was probably the most commodious and well-equipped 
Negro church in slavery days. It cost over $18,000 
and was of brick construction, three stories high, 100 
by 40 feet, with rooms for worship, lectures, reading, 
circulating library, and day school, primarily to train 
both sexes for mission work in Africa. The teacher 
became a church officer among Negroes. 

Successes of the Convention 

The Abyssinian and Zion Churches of New York 
City and the Union Church of Philadelphia first saw the 
need of an organization that would unite Negro Bap- 
tists for the evangelization, education, and general up- 
lift of that race. A separate association was not formed 



Negro Baptists 105 



because Negro churches remained in white associa- 
tions; so the American Baptist Missionary Convention 
was organized in the Abyssinian Church in 1840. It 
was incorporated in 1848 with headquarters in New 
York City. In 1860, 29 churches, 18 licentiates, and 41 
ordained ministers, were enrolled, representing the 
East, California, and Africa. Any person could be- 
come a member by sending one dollar, and any mis- 
sion society, church, or association, by three dollars. 
At one session representation fees came from twenty- 
eight persons in Virginia, one in South Carolina, and 
one in Louisiana. 

Its Tasks 

The tasks attempted by the Convention were the fol- 
lowing : taking care of widows of deceased ministers by 
collections from the churches, supplying vacant 
churches with ministers when requested, sending min- 
isters into destitute places to plant and assist finan- 
cially in building up churches, encouraging the mental 
development of themselves and young men who had 
the ministry in view, cooperating with Bible, Sun- 
day school, and tract societies, working against the 
use of intoxicating drinks as beverages, and prosecut- 
ing missionary work in non-Christian lands. By 1857 
nearly one-half of the Convention was composed of 
women whose duty was to be agents for the widow's 
fund. The American Baptist, organ of the Free Mis- 
sion Society, was adopted by the Convention. 

During the Civil War 

The work of the Convention was interrupted by the 
Civil War. Because of his duties Leonard Grimes re- 



106 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

fused the chaplaincy of the 54th Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, but 
James Underdew left the First African Church of 
Philadelphia to serve as chaplain of the 39th Regi- 
ment, U. S. Colored Troops. A committee of the Con- 
vention, on which was Edmund Kelly, pastor of the 
Second Church, New Bedford, Massachusetts, evangel- 
ist, and lecturer, whose Diary supplies much that is 
known of this group, waited on the President of the 
United States. In response to their request the Presi- 
dent wrote this letter: 

Executive Mansion 
Washington, August 21, 1863 
To Whom It May Concern: 

Today I am called upon by a committee of colored minis- 
ters of the gospel, who express a wish to go within our 
military lines and minister to their brethren there. The ob- 
ject is a worthy one, and I shall be glad for all facilities to 
be afforded them, which may not be inconsistent with, or a 
hindrance to our military operations. 

A. LINCOLN 

Conditions in the South 

Negroes of the South threw open their churches for 
the earliest schools, and Negro Baptists from the 
North went South and built up an internal cohesion 
within that race. The more the social, moral, and re- 
ligious plight of the Negro that called forth those ef- 
forts is brought to light the more nauseating becomes 
the true commentary on the institution of slavery. So 
prompted by Northern philanthropists, encouraged by 
Southern Baptists, inspired by their own successful 
leaders and compelled by ambition, Negro preachers 
began to organize Sunday schools, churches, associa- 



Negro Baptists 107 



tions and conventions. 1 In slavery times the preachers 
had come largely from the skilled mechanic and arti- 
san class. Now whatever tendency there had been 
toward establishing a norm of belief in the denomina- 
tion was set back by a rush for holy orders from all 
classes of society. Since some Baptists in Louisiana 
practiced the sprinkling of infants through the in- 
fluence of the Catholics, it is believable that Southern 
Negroes might have developed a type of religion all 
their own had they been left to themselves. 

Southern Missionary Labors 

But that was not the case. At the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the Missionary Convention, when Leonard 
Grimes was reelected president, Baptists of New Eng- 
land, Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia were repre- 
sented, and $5,000 annually was reported as expended 
on agents and missionaries at the South. These la- 
borers suffered more than any other class of mission- 
aries. 

Northwestern and Southern Conventions 

At the outbreak of the war there was no similar or- 
ganization in the West. The Western Colored Baptist 
Association, organized at St. Louis in 1853 for the up- 
building of the churches, had had no meeting since 
1859 although it had extended its program to include 
the formal training of ministers. In 1863 the Wood 



1. The earliest state conventions were in Kentucky 
(1865), North Carolina (1866), followed by Virginia and 
Alabama (1867). 



108 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

River Association resolved to reorganize a Western 
Convention; so the Northwestern and Southern Bap- 
tist Convention was formed in St. Louis in June, 1864. 
At the first session twenty-six churches from Illinois, 
Indiana, Ohio, Missouri, Tennessee, Louisiana, Missis- 
sippi, and Arkansas were represented. As an agent of 
the Convention William Troy explored the Mississippi 
as a vast field of labor, and Jesse Freeman Boulden of 
Illinois went to work at Natchez. 

Consolidated Missionarj^ Convention 

President William P. Newman, then pastor of the 
Union Church of Cincinnati, believed that the Free 
Mission Society, the Missionary Convention, and the 
Northwestern and Southern Convention should unite. 
He died in August, 1866, just a few weeks before the 
Missionary Convention and the Northwestern and 
Southern Convention agreed at Richmond to become 
the Consolidated American Baptist Missionary Con- 
vention. Its objectives were the moral, intellectual, 
and religious growth of the denomination; delibera- 
tion upon questions of general concern, and devising 
plans to bring the churches and the Negro race closer 
together. By 1867 all of the officers of the Consol- 
idated Convention, except the corresponding secretary, 
were from the West or South. 

Printing Department 

Its work was carried on through departments or 
broads. In Brooklyn in December, 1868, the Conven- 
tion started the Sunbeam, a Sunday school paper which 
grew to 6,000 copies. In six years a Printing Depart- 



Negro Baptists 109 



ment which employed fifteen persons of whom fourteen 
were Negroes, was in full operation and issued the 
People's Journal, a Juvenile, paper, said to have had 
10,000 subscribers, the National Monitor, with a re- 
ported circulation of 76,000, and Sunday school litera- 
ture. Rufus L. Perry, editor of the organ of the Free 
Mission Society, and W. T. Dixon were editors in 
charge. 

Educational Department 

An Educational Department was organized in 1869 
with headquarters in Brooklyn where it was incor- 
porated. Not content with establishing schools in 
Tennessee, Mississippi, and Virginia, by 1870 the De- 
partment had daring plans for a school in every one 
of the late slave states. 

Foreign Mission Department 

President De Baptist was made the President of the 
Free Mission Society in 1870 since it and the Conven- 
tion had virtually the same constituency. Constitu- 
tional difficulties prevented a merger, but when the 
Convention assumed the Haitian mission in 1871, a 
Foreign Mission Department became necessary. It 
was established in Chicago in 1878. 

Successes of the Convention 

This organization with its auxiliary departments or 
boards was so unique that subsequent generations of 
Negro Baptists have never improved upon it. At the 
height of its career in 1870 the Consolidated Conven- 



110 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

tion had fifty-one missionaries under appointment 
in states as far removed as California, New York, and 
Mississippi. During the year its missionaries collected 
almost all of the $26,044.02 raised, which is worth 
comparing with the $22,573.55 received by the South- 
ern Convention for that fiscal year. 

Its Disruption 

In 1872 when the Convention divided itself into six 
districts covering the entire country, it paved the 
way for its disruption. Three of those districts be- 
came independent conventions. The Baptist General 
Association of the Western States and Territories, 
1873, turned attention first to the building of the 
West and later to Africa while the New England Bap- 
tist Missionary Convention, 1874, has continued the 
most effective Baptist organization in the East. The 
Southwestern and Southern Missionary Baptist Con- 
vention began in 1874 with its first session in 1875. The 
constituency from Tennessee, Kentucky, and Alabama 
resolved to cooperate with Northern Baptists. After 
a few years both this and the Consolidated Convention 
existed in name only. 

Its Leaders 

Rufus L. Perry of Brooklyn, the corresponding sec- 
retary from beginning to end, and Richard De Baptist 
of Chicago, the president during the formative period, 
1867-1870, 1872-3, stand out as leaders among the Ne- 
gro Baptists. Perry twice a runaway to Canada where 
he taught school, prepared for the ministry at Kala- 



Negro Baptists 111 



mazoo (Michigan) Theological Seminary. Sometimes a 
pastor but better known as a missionary and a writer, 
he brought his literary career to a climax in 1893 by 
issuing The Cushite or the Descendants of Ham as 
Found in the Sacred Scriptures and in the Writings of 
Ancient Historians and Poets from Noah to the Chris- 
tian Era. Richard De Baptist (1831-1901), born in 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, and early educated by his 
parents, was the statistician of the denomination and 
pastor of the Olivet Church of Chicago for nineteen 
years, during which time he built two church houses. 

The Race Consciousness 

The Consolidated Convention welded Negro Bap- 
tists together and unified their leadership. Not with- 
out keen competition did it win the control of Negro 
Baptist churches which had buoyed up the spirit and 
saved the soul of a people during slavery, and which 
were all things to all men during the Reconstruction. 
In spite of the fact that representatives of the Con- 
vention spoke at important gatherings of Northern 
Baptists who had honored Leonard Grimes, Duke Wil- 
liam Anderson, and W. T. Dixon with executive posi- 
tions in their agencies, the Consolidated Convention 
refused absolutely to cooperate with Northern Bap- 
tists, for to them cooperation meant subordination. 
They were unconsciously expressing the opinions of 
any submerged group which appropriates the culture 
and ideals of the dominant race or nationality and at 
the same time reinterprets them in terms of aspira- 
tions of their own. It is important to understand this 
racial consciousness to account for the progress of Ne- 
gro Baptists. 



112 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Foreign Mission Convention 

When W. W. Colley was recalled by the Southern 
Baptists from Africa in 1879 that act inspired the Vir- 
ginia State Convention to send him throughout the 
country to arouse interest in a Negro Foreign Mis- 
sion Convention. A meeting was called on November 
24, 1880, at Montgomery, Alabama, and the Baptist 
Foreign Mission Convention of the United States of 
America was formed by one hundred twelve delegates 
from Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Virginia, Texas, 
North Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, Louisiana, and 
Florida. W. H. McAlpine of Alabama was elected 
president, and W. W. Colley, corresponding secretary. 
A Foreign Mission Board was located at Richmond to 
have oversight of the ''diffusion of the gospel of Je- 
sus Christ on the Continent of Africa and elsewhere." 



The results of the Foreign Mission Convention are 
not measured wholly by the ten missionaries sent to 
Africa, 1 nor by the more than three hundred Africans 
converted, nor by the $30,000 contributed. The conven- 
tion gave Negroes an international mind and turned 
the attention of thousands of Negroes to such things 
as smoking and the liquor traffic. It gave women and 
children a place in its official family, due wholly 



1. In 1881 James O. Hayes, already an emigrant to Li- 
beria, representing the North Carolina State Convention, 
was adopted, and two years later the Convention sent out 
J. H. Prestley and wife, W. W. Colley and wife, J. J. Coles, 
and H. McKinney. By 1887 H. McKinney, J. J. Coles, Lucy 
Coles, J. J. Diggs, E. B. Topp and wife with four native 
helpers were in Liberia. By 1893 all had either died or been 
recalled. 



Negro Baptists 113 



to Joanna P. Moore whose work was endorsed in strong 
terms. 

Its Weaknesses 

The very democracy of the Convention with un- 
trained people was a source of weakness. The weight 
of its own strength was crushing the life out of it. 
Thus handicapped, the Convention adopted at least 
nine different plans for raising funds for the work, 
one of which was the division of the territory into 
districts similar to the plan of the ill-fated Consoli- 
dated Convention. Since more than half of the money 
was given by the Baptists of Virginia, in 1885 the 
First Foreign Mission District, comprising Maryland, 
Virginia, and the District of Columbia, was created 
with some half dozen other districts. 

American National Convention 

Because the Foreign Mission Convention repeatedly 
refused overtures of cooperation from the Northern 
Baptists, it was believed that there was a place for a 
Convention that would cooperate with them. William 
J. Simmons, president of State University, on April 9, 
1886, issued a call to clergy and laymen to meet in a 
national convention. On August 25 of that year 
representatives of twenty-six states and the District 
of Columbia convened in St. Louis and organized the 
American National Baptist Convention. The Minutes 
report that in the delegation "were graduates of law, 
medicine, and theology; professors of Philosophy, 
German, French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; a num- 



114 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

ber of State ex-representatives and ex-senators; two 
ex-lieutenant governors; editors and teachers not a 
few; a Baptist senator from Mississippi; and a Bap- 
tist missionary from London, England." 

Uncommon Policies 

This group was singular for a number of things. 
After the ejection of Negroes from politics in the 
South following Reconstruction, the preachers in poli- 
tics returned to their ministry while some politicians 
who were not preachers surreptitiously got a call to 
preach. Thus political methods got a strangle hold on 
Negro Baptists. In a sense the American Convention 
was a replica of the Northern societies and cooperated 
with many groups such as the National Temperance 
Society of New York of which J. J. Spelman was a 
lecturer for the Negroes. Miss Lucy Wilmot Smith, 
historian, was the first woman to have an official po- 
sition in a national Negro Baptist organization. Ne- 
groes were also encouraged to write. 

William J. Simmons, Versatile President 

The Foreign Mission Convention memoralized Wil- 
liam J. Simmons at his death at forty years of age in 
1890 in these words: "We have lost the foremost Ne- 
gro Baptist in the world, and one of the greatest Ne- 
groes that ever lived." He was the organizer and pres- 
ident of the American National Baptist Convention; 
pastor of the Berean Church, Louisville, Kentucky; 
president of the National Negro Press Association; 
president, State (now Municipal) University of Louis- 



Negro Baptists 115 



ville; editor, the American Baptist, Our Women and 
Children, and the proposed National Baptist Maga- 
zine; author, Men of Mark: Emminent, Progressive 
and Rising, with an Introductory Sketch of the Author 
by Reverend Henry M. Turner (1140 pages), and dis- 
trict secertary for the South under appointment of 
the Home Mission Society. Patriot and politician, 
educator and editor, pastor and preacher, orator and 
organizer were some of his titles. But even more! 

Honorary Titles 

For two years beginning with 1868 the query came 
before the Wood River Association "to find out the 
best mode and place for getting a D. D.," but prior to 
the American Convention only three Negro Baptists 
with honorary degrees have been found. They were 
Theodore Doughty Miller, D. D., 1884, pastor of the 
First African Church, Philadelphia, and sometime 
preacher before the Philadelphia Association; William 
J. Simmons, A. B. (Howard, 1873), D. D. (Wilber- 
force, 1885), and E. M. Brawley, A. B. (Bucknell, 
1875), D. D. (State, 1885), pastor, missionary, col- 
lege president, shaper of the educational policy of 
South Carolina Baptists. After that the granting of 
degrees was forced on Home Mission schools as it be- 
came the favorite pastime of the schools controlled 
by Negroes. Preachers became the traditional doc- 
tors; teachers, "Fessors." Negro Baptists became as 
titled as the French nobility before the Revolution, and 
so Howard, Wilberforce, and Selma decreed that the 
president of the American Baptist Convention should 
be William John Simmons, A. M., D. D., LL. D. 



116 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



Independent Schools 

At such a time Negro schools were especially popu- 
lar, and every State in the South was urged by the 
Convention to foster Baptist schools. Some of the 
best known schools of higher education supported by 
Negro Baptists were Selma (Alabama) University, 
1878; State (now Municipal) University of Louisville, 
Kentucky, 1879; Gaudaloupe College of Seguine, 
Texas, 1884; and Arkansas (Little Rock) Baptist Col- 
lege, 1885. 

National Education Convention 

The National Baptist Education Convention was 
begun in Washington, D. C, May 16, 1892/ to secure 
data and statistics of the denomination; to assist 
graduates of the schools in securing positions; to pro- 
vide a fund for the assistance of promising young men 
and women ; and to bring together the educators of 
the Negro Baptists. Three acres of land were owned 
in Maryland between Washington and Baltimore on 
which summer chautauquas were to be held. Philip 
F. Morris of Lynchburg, Virginia, was president, but 
he did not carry out the objects of the Convention be- 
cause a plan to consolidate all of the national conven- 
tions was being perfected. 

National Convention of the United States of America 

The mission work of the Baptist African (formerly 
the Baptist General Association) and the New Eng- 
land conventions was united under the Foreign Mis- 



1. The National Baptist Magazine. October, 1891, 24f.; 
Minutes Virginia Baptist State Convention, 1893, 21f., 23. 



Negro Baptists 117 



sion Convention in 1893. In Atlanta, Georgia, Septem- 
ber 24, 1895, the Foreign Mission Convention, the 
American National Convention, and the National 
Education Convention became the National Bap- 
tist Convention of the United States of America 
with Elias C. Morris, president. The depart- 
mental method of organization of the Consolidated 
Convention was adopted whereby the Foreign 
Mission Board, the Home Mission Board, and the Edu- 
cational Board took the places of their respective con- 
ventions. The Baptist Young People's Union Board 
(1899), the Benefit Board (1905), the Publishing 
Board (1905), the Church Extension Board (1916), 
and the Cradle Roll Board (1927) have since been 
added with auxiliaries such as the Woman's Conven- 
tion (1900), which supports the National Training 
School for Women and Girls in Washington, D. C. ; the 
First District Convention of the Central and Western 
States, practically independent from its beginning in 
1904; the Sunday School and B. Y. P. U. Congress 
(1905), and the Laymen's League. 

Foreign Mission Board and the Lott Gary Foreign 
Mission Convention 

At the outset there was friction between the 
Foreign Mission Board and the Convention when head- 
quarters were moved to Louisville (later to Philadel- 
phia) . Before this could be settled the Baptists of the 
East were stirred over the Convention publishing its 
own literature. So the Baptists of the First Foreign 
Mission District organized the First District Foreign 
Mission Convention on December 16, 1897, at Wash- 
ington, D. C. The name was changed in two years to 



118 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

the Lott Cary Baptist Foreign Mission Convention. In 
1930 this Convention with its Woman's Auxiliary and 
Junior Department reported 10 American missionaries 
in Liberia, West Africa, doing industrial and evangel- 
ical work, and 4 in Haiti. The Convention publishes 
the Lott Cary Herald. Headquarters are in Washing- 
ton, D. C. The Foreign Mission Board of the Nation- 
al Convention contributes to 25 missionaries and 35 
native workers in South Africa, West Africa, East 
Africa, and the British West Indies. The Mission 
Herald is the official organ. 

Home Missions 

In 1895 the American Baptist Home Mission Society 
proposed an elaborate plan for cooperation with Ne- 
groes in thirteen states. After two or three years of 
conference and discussion in many cities the only re- 
sult was an intensification of the desire of many Ne- 
groes for schools managed entirely by their own race. 
For years there was bitter feeling between the "Co- 
operationists" and the "Anti-cooperationists" ; and 
soon schools supported and controlled by Negroes were 
established in Georgia, Texas, Virginia, and other 
states. Virginia (Lynchburg) Seminary and College, 
1898, is probably the best known. Here the Southern 
Convention entered in 1900 by ratifying a plan of co- 
operation between the Home Boards of the Southern 
(white) and National conventions and in 1904 amend- 
ed the plan by leaving Negro education to the Home 
Mission Society but offered dollar for dollar for mis- 
sion work. 



Negro Baptists 119 



Publishing Board 

Because of difficulty since 1891 in having articles by 
Negro Baptists published, plans to meet this difficulty 
assumed business proportions in 1896 when the Home 
Board was "charged" to publish Sunday school liter- 
ature for the Convention. Beginning with few mate- 
rial assets in a room 8 by 10 feet but with the inimi- 
table R. H. Boyd, secretary of the Board, the first liter- 
ature came out in 1897 as reprints from the literature 
of the Southern Baptists in backs printed by Boyd. 
Although sneeringly referred to as "white guts in 
black backs," the project succeeded from the first, 
eventually demanding seven buildings to house the 
publishing of Sunday school literature, tracts, books, 
and hymnals. The work was enlarged to do job 
printing, to serve as jobber for publishers, to supply 
churches with furniture, and to distribute Negro doHs : ,, 
first introduced in America by Boyd from Germany,, 
The operating expenses were reported to amount to> 
$400 a day, and thousands of dollars were contributed 
to missions. The Publishing Board was incorporated 
in 1895, but continued auxiliary to the Home Board 
until 1905. Thus did Rev. R. H. Boyd make his place 
among the successful business leaders of the Negro 
race and world. 

Educational Board 

The Educational Board has perhaps done little other 
than report statistics of purely Negro Baptist schools, 
which number about 125 with property valued at ap- 
proximately $2,000,000. The education of Negro 

Sig.— 9 



120 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

preachers had been entirely connected with schools 
and colleges in the different states until the Southern 
Baptists cooperated with the National Convention in 
opening the American Seminary in Nashville in 1924. 

Young People's Union Board 

Undaunted by numerous hindrances, the late E. W. 
D. Isaac has made the Baptist Young People's Union 
Board at Nashville indispensable to over 12,000 young 
people's societies, affiliating with the Convention. The 
Board trains Christian workers, prints and distributes 
supplies, and helps conduct the annual Sunday School 
and B. Y. P. U. Congress. 

National Convention, Unincorporated 

The magnanimous Elias C. Morris (1855-1922) kept 
all of these divergent groups together. The issue as 
to who owned the Publishing House was the only event 
that disturbed the peace of the National Baptists in 
the twentieth century. After a series of investigations 
friends of Boyd lined up against, and, of Morris, for 
denominational control of this agency, and both fac- 
tions were interested in the financial control of the 
plant. 1 Along the lines of this cleavage the Convention 
was disrupted at Chicago in 1915. The delegates fol- 
lowing Secretary Boyd formed at that time what be- 
came the National Baptist Convention, Unincorporated, 
with the Publishing Board as the hub of that body. 



1. Private correspondence of E. J. Fisher, chairman of 
Investigating Committees. 



Negro Baptists 121 



All other auxiliaries and boards remained together 
and incorporated the National Baptist Convention 
which by August, 1925, had completed a $600,000 
building in downtown Nashville to house the newly or- 
ganized Sunday School Publishing Board. The Na- 
tional Baptist Voice became their official organ. 

Work of the Unincorporated Convention 

The former National organ, the National Baptist 
Union-Review, continued with the Unincorporated 
Convention but without the services of the editor who 
went to the Voice. The Unincorporated Convention set 
about to establish boards. Through a joint commission 
with the Lott Cary Convention in 1924 it was agreed 
that each convention was to maintain its autonomy 
while prosecuting all foreign mission work through 
the Lott Cary Convention and other activities through 
the Unincorporated Convention. This arrangement 
gives the National Convention a large field in which to 
distribute its literature and the Lott Cary Convention 
an occasion to realize its national strivings. 

Numerical Strength 

Had the now defunct Negro Baptist Educational So- 
ciety of the New England, Central and Western States, 
organized in Chicago in 1922, been kept alive by those 
interested in its organization, the National Convention, 
Incorporated, probably would have become a Southern 
institution. As it now is the Incorporated Convention 
is the recognized representative of the Negro Bap- 
tists of America by the Northern Convention, the 



122 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Southern Convention, and the Baptist World Alliance. 
The statistics of Negro Baptists, however, include the 
groups in all the conventions and among the Northern 
Baptists. In 1930 there were 17,743 ministers, 22,- 
081 churches, and 3,750,000 communicants with prop- 
erty valued at $103,465,800, the largest organization 
that is controlled by Negroes in the world, over a 
million more Negro Christians, than in all other de- 
nominations combined, practically one-third of the Ne- 
gro race in America. Membership in all the conven- 
tions is on a financial basis. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE FAMILY CIRCLE 

The Baptist Family 

Baptists have insisted that the world was a brother- 
hood and have come to recognize kindred groups and 
individuals who are immersed on a profession of their 
religious faith as members of the family circle. While 
some have no Baptist name to show their family re- 
lationship, others call themselves "Baptists." All dif- 
fer in some particulars from the groups of the denomi- 
nation already reviewed. 

The Disciples 

The Disciples, representing over 2,000,000 members 
and nearly 15,000 churches with 9,896 ministers, the 
largest body of Protestants that has originated in 
America, are so closely identified with the Baptists that 
they can be designated a "big brother" in the de- 
nomination. Aided by the strong emotional leader- 
ship of Alexander Campbell, initiator of Scriptural 
"Reform," of Barton W. Stone, a popular organizer in 
Kentucky, of Walter Scott, known for featuring bap- 
tism "unto remission of sins," and of others, and 
armed with the Christian Baptist which became the 



123 



124 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Millennial Harbinger to spread its propaganda, a new 
denomination, the Disciples of Christ, arose from the 
confusion of divided Baptist churches and associations. 
There are two bodies of the Disciples now, but they 
are united in their acceptance of the Scriptures as a 
guide of faith and in the practice of believers baptism 
by immersion. A historian 1 of this group makes a state- 
ment to the effect that the Baptists tolerated Alex- 
ander Campbell, and, if history repeats itself, his fol- 
lowers can tolerate the Baptists. Forward looking 
persons among the Baptists and the Disciples see noth- 
ing in the way of the union of these two denomina- 
tions. 

The Dunkards 

The five bodies of Dunkards with 166,867 members 
and 3,229 ministers constitute a growing Baptistic 
group, especially among the Germans with whom they 
originated in Schwarzenau, Germany, in 1708. After 
1718 until the thirties they are found as immigrants 
in Pennsylvania whither they continued to come to 
escape persecution. From a kneeling position the 
Dunkard candidate for baptism is thrice dipt forward, 
once for each person in the Trinity; the ministry in- 
cludes bishops, ministers, and deacons ; and in the wor- 
ship service feet washing, the holy kiss, and love feasts 
are practiced. Along with those religious practices 
have developed odd social customs of dress and deport- 
ment. The strict discipline has led to division into 



1. Garrison, Religion Follows the Frontier. 



The Family Circle 125 

five bodies, with one keeping the seventh day of the 
week as the Sabbath. In their beliefs they are similar 
to some anti-missionary Baptists, opposing Sunday 
schools, higher education until recently, fraternal or- 
ganizations, and a paid ministry. It is to their praise, 
however, that the Dunkards have taken high ground 
in condemning slavery and strong drink. Because of 
their origin the Dunkards must not become confused 
with German Baptists in America nor with other 
sects of Brethren, as they call themselves. These 
Brethren (Plymouth, River, Social, and United) also 
practice immersion. 

The Church of God (Winebrenner) 

One branch of the Church of God (Winebrenner) 
centers in Pennsylvania, the sanctuary of the small 
sects. John Winebrenner, pastor of the German Re- 
formed Church at Harrisburg, separated from his de- 
nomination because of its disapproval of his revival, 
which had telling results. New churches were 
formed, and those inclined to accept the Scriptures 
alone for guidance formed the Church of God in 1830, 
repudiating sectarian names. They support an acad- 
emy and a college and have their own publishing house 
at Harrisburg. They believe in immersion, the Lord's 
Supper, which is served in the evening, feet washing, 
and an itinerant ministry appointed by elders. 

The Church of God (Reformation Movement) 

The other branch of the Church of God, Reforma- 
tion Movement, has 1703 ministers, 605 churches, and 



126 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

29,123 members, about four times as many ministers, 
one-fourth more churches, but just 252 more mem- 
bers than the Winebrennerians. According to their 
historian the movement began about 1880 from the 
holiness agitation, when Daniel S. Warner and other 
ministers became unconnected with humanly organized 
churches and accepted Scriptural standards. They 
have carefully avoided recording their history around 
churches and center everything around their weekly 
journal, the Gospel Trumpet, which has had a con- 
tinuous if not regular existence since January 1, 1881. 
Having had two earlier locations each in Indiana, Ohio, 
and Michigan, the Gospel Trumpet became firmly es- 
tablished in Moundsville, West Virginia, until it was 
moved in 1906 to denominational headquarters in 
Anderson, Indiana. Added to immersion and the 
Lord's Supper, the distinctive beliefs of the 
Church of God are sanctification following con- 
version, foot-washing, divine healing, non-par- 
ticipation in war, and chiefly that the church 
is divinely organized and governed. Their purely 
voluntary General Ministerial Assembly, held an- 
nually in June at the time of the International 
Camp-Meeting at Anderson, elects a Missionary Board, 
through which it hopes to keep in contact with the 
Church of God in Europe and in nine non-Christian 
countries, a Board of Church Extension and Home 
Missions, which is mostly evangelistic, and a Board of 
Sunday Schools and Religious Education. The pub- 
lic meetings are held in a tabernacle, seating 6,000. 
The Anderson Bible School and Seminary and its sub- 
sidiary, the Southern Bible Institute, Augusta, Geor- 
gia, are their schools. The Gospel Trumpet Company 



The Family Circle 127 

maintains an Old People's Home and publishes the 
Trumpet in English, Spanish, Arabic, Greek, and 
other languages, and for the blind, and by a separate 
allied concern for the Germans. Women are accorded 
places as preachers. 

The Churches of God (General Assembly) 

A much smaller sect known as the Churches of God, 
General Assembly, has 200 churches with an average 
of 23 members. The Negro divisions, which immerse 
but also have a plurality of church officers, wash the 
saints' feet, and use unleavened bread and water in 
communion, are also Baptistic. The Church of God 
and Saints of Christ (1896) was organized in Kansas 
by William S. Crowdy. Three divisions of the Churches 
of the Living God have organized in the West. The 
Church of the Living God was begun in Wrightville, 
Arkansas, in 1889 by William Christian. The name 
was changed in 1915 to Christian Workers for Fel- 
lowship. Two secessions from this sect have been the 
Church of the Living God (General Assembly) in 1902 
and the Church of Christ in God which has consoli- 
dated with the parent body. Farther south in Texas 
the Church of the Living God began in 1908 as an 
organization separate from the white people. There 
are about 25,000 of these Christians besides whole 
Pentecostal and holiness sects that practice im- 
mersion. The facts that Negroes who join other 
denominations often insist on immersion and 
that some of the strength of those churches 
has been recruited from Baptists make it con- 
servative to estimate that in their views of bap- 



128 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

tism fully one-half of that race belongs to the Bap- 
tist family. 

Other Baptistic Sects 

There are others even omitting the Arminian and 
Eastern Orthodox churches which practice baptism 
by immersion but do not limit it to regenerate be- 
lievers. In round numbers there are 90,000 Men- 
nonites, 4000 Christadelphians, 100,000 Christians, re- 
cently merged with the Congregationalists, and 150,- 
000 Adventists. This last denomination grew from 
the preaching of William Miller, a Baptist farmer of 
Low Hampton, New York. After 1831 his interpreta- 
tions of the prophecies of Daniel convinced hundreds 
that Christ would return and that the Millenium 
would be established in 1843-1844. Although his cal- 
culations proved incorrect, a general conference of Ad- 
ventists was formed in 1845. Some of them worship 
on the seventh day, and all expect the speedy return 
of Christ. 

Current Issues Dividing Baptist Family 

On the one hand, the thirteen denominations named 
represent approximately three and a half million peo- 
ple who among other things hold to some Baptist ten- 
ets that were won by Baptists through suffering be- 
fore those denominations were organized. On the 
other hand, there are fifteen bodies with a constitu- 
ency of 480,350 members in 1931 who admit that they 
are in the family circle by calling themselves "Bap- 
tist," regardless of the way they modify the name. 



The Family Circle 129 

While providing in their name a safety valve for their 
denominational sentiment, these latter bodies, in strik- 
ing contrast with the aforenamed positive Baptistic 
groups, have continued mainly as survivals of negative 
protests respecting current issues in the developing 
denomination. 

Doctrines — General Six-Principle Baptists 

First, matters of belief had to be settled. Arminian 
and Calvinistic differences existed among American 
Baptists as they did among English Baptists. The 
early churches including the First at Providence were 
Calvinistic. The controversy that ensued in that 
church has been mentioned (page 26), when the "lay- 
ing on of hands" and the further introduction of Ar- 
minian views divided that church as it subsequently 
did many others. The holders of the doctrine of lay- 
ing on of hands, the General Six-Principle Baptists, 
have existed since 1639 and were numerous enough to 
hold an annual meeting in New England in 1670. Al- 
though these Arminian churches hold membership in 
The International Old Baptist Union, the body has con- 
tinually weakened to 6 churches and less than 300 
members. As Calvinism at last triumphed, largely 
through the influence of the Philadelphia Association, 
the majority of the churches accepted that belief. 

Seventh Day Baptists 

With that issue settled the day of worship became 
a mooted question. After the settling of Stephen 
Mumford in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1664, atten- 



130 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

tion was attracted to his observance of the seventh 
day as the Sabbath as he with other Sabbatarian Bap- 
tists had done in England. The Newport Church was 
divided, and the first Seventh Day Baptist church in 
America was formed in 1671. From other similar 
early beginnings in Philadelphia and Piscataway, New 
Jersey, the Seventh Day Baptists, excluding the Ger- 
man Seventh Day Baptists (Dunkards) organized in 
1728, have increased to 67 churches and 7,264 mem- 
bers spread in 21 states. They have a denominational 
missionary, tract, and educational society and differ 
only in the day of worship from the rest of the de- 
nomination. They are affiliated with the Federal Coun- 
cil of the Churches of Christ in America. 

Revivals— Separate, Regular, United, and Kindred 
Groups of Baptists 

Should the denomination take part in the revival 
movement that was sweeping the country under Ed- 
wards, Whitfield, and others? was the next question 
that had to be answered. An answer to that question 
might involve a modification of the Calvinism and con- 
servative views of some Baptists, but it certainly 
would not be wholly doctrinal. The Separate Baptists 
responded by joining in the revival, but the Regular 
Baptists held aloof. In Virginia these groups formed 
the United Baptist Churches of Christ in 1787. As 
a matter of fact, the United Baptists have attempted 
to unify the Separate and Regular groups from the 
beginning of the seventeenth century but have only 
added another member to the family. There is more 
or less fellowship among these groups and with those 



The Family Circle 131 



listed in the 1926 Census as the Duck River and Kin- 
dred Associations of Baptists. Most of the churches 
are confined to the South and are not averse to foot- 
washing. It might be interesting to note that of the 
733 churches in these four groups only 23 are urban. 

Northern Free Baptists 

At such a time as the Great Awakening evangelical 
Arminianism was inevitably revived. It did not have 
to change anything; it was ready. Benjamin Randall 
(1759-1808) was its chief exponent. Having heard of 
Whitfield's death just two days after he had heard him 
preach at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in September, 
1770, young Randall became converted and felt called 
to carry on. He left the Congregational Church and 
was baptized into the fellowship of the Baptist church 
at Berwick, Maine. In 1778 he located in New Dur- 
ham, New Hampshire, and became widely known as an 
evangelist who preached that every person might be 
saved, for God was willing and had made atonement 
for those who would come. Baptists were not ready 
for that teaching, and so Randall was disfellowshipped 
by a council of brethren. Others ordained him in 
1780 for the newly organized Baptist church in Dur- 
ham which agreed with those views. In ten years 
his followers, now called Free Will Baptists, had 18 
churches and about 1800 members. They formed a 
General Conference in 1827. Several divisions oc- 
curred in the thirties, one that has continued being the 
Bullockites, reporting now but 2 churches and 36 mem- 
bers. The Morning Star, official organ of the Free 
Baptists, appeared in 1826. Because of the encourage- 



132 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



ment of English General Baptists a Foreign Mission 
Society was organized in 1833, and labors were soon 
begun in North India. Their Home Mission Society 
began in 1834, and their Education Society, in 1840. 
The scope of the denomination was so broadened in 
1841 as to designate and to include all Free, Free- 
Communion, Free Will, and Open Communion Bap- 
tists. The denomination early favored Sunday 
schools and temperance and vigorously opposed 
slavery and freemasonry. That group of approxi- 
mately 150,000 members became merged in 1911 with 
the Northern Baptists. 

Southern Free Baptists 

The stand of that denomination against slavery 
automatically made the organization a Northern insti- 
tution. Yet at the South was a similar group, an off- 
shoot of the Welch Tract Church from which Paul 
Palmer had gone to North Carolina and gathered a 
church in 1727. In 1752 they had an organization of 
16 churches and probably 1000 communicants. They 
continually lost ground till reduced to 4 churches as 
Calvinism advanced, but by repeated reinforcement 
from the North the Free Will cause was revived. It 
now includes 1024 churches and 79,952 members, 
centering around North Carolina with a college at Ay- 
den and an orphanage at Middlesex. A mission is sup- 
ported in Bengal. They practice foot-washing and 
anointing the sick with oil. 

Negro Free Baptists 

Not until 1901 was the Negro constituency of that 
denomination organized separately as the United 



The Family Circle 133 

American Free Will Baptists. They enroll 166 churches 
and 13,396 members who as yet are unorganized in 
missionary work, but who do much through their 
Woman's Home Mission and Educational Society. 

General Baptists 

The Free Baptists did not comprise all those who 
persisted in their Arminian views. The General Bap- 
tists were revived on the frontier in 1823 with the or- 
ganization of a church in Vanderburg, County, In- 
diana, by Benoni Stinson. A General Association 
was organized in 1870 to bring "into more intimate 
and fraternal relation and effective cooperation va- 
rious bodies of liberal Baptists." This objective has 
failed to bear fruit with the Free Will and Separate 
Baptists with whom efforts for union have been con- 
spicuously unsuccessful. The General Association, how- 
ever, perfected a basis of cooperation with the Northern 
Baptist Convention in 1915. They have a home mission 
board; a foreign mission board, supervising labor in 
Guam ; Oakland City College in Indiana, and a publish- 
ing house in Indiana. They have 465 churches and 
31,501 members in the states of Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Nebraska, Kansas, Tennessee, Arkansas, Okla- 
homa, and California. Probably the influence of the 
General Baptists is seen among Negroes in the name 
General Association given to their state organization 
instead of state convention even in a state like Ken- 
tucky where there is no formally named state conven- 
tion. 



134 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Missions — Two-Seed-in-the-Sjpirit Predestinarian 
Baptists 

The Baptists next must decide whether the denomi- 
nation should become missionary. The causes of the 
anti-missionary spirit have been reviewed in Chapter 
IV. The pro-missionists, comprising the majority of 
Northern, Southern, and Negro Baptists, were unof- 
ficially designated as "missionary" Baptists. Their 
most bitter antagonist was Daniel Parker, native of 
Virginia and ordained in Tennessee where he spread 
his dissent into Kentucky. Removing to southeastern 
Illinois in 1817 where he remained throughout life, 
he developed his active anti-missionism. A Public Ad- 
dress to the Baptist Society was printed by him in 
1820 and 1824 and circulated to oppose the mission ef- 
forts of the Triennial Convention. In 1829 he pub- 
lished the Church Advocate, a monthly, which was 
used to spread his Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Doctrine that 
had been circulated in pamphlet form in 1826. His 
belief harked back to ancient Manichaeism, specify- 
ing that the seed of God was elected to salvation while 
the seed of the devil, to damnation. Consequently, it 
was foolish to try to change a man's destiny. Though 
the Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists 
have modified their Calvinism, and perhaps because 
they have modified it, they still exist but with 
only 27 churches and 304 members in 5 Southern 
states. 

Primitive Baptists 

All of the anti-effort Baptists were frequently re- 
ferred to as "Anti-Mission," "Old School," "Land- 
mark," "Hard Shell," and "Primitive," although only 



The Family Circle 135 

Primitive is the other name for 81,374 members of the 
Baptist family who have 2,267 churches. They are 
represented in 32 states and the District of Columbia, 
tracing the beginning of their protest against the use 
of human means in salvation to the Kehukee Associa- 
tion of North Carolina in 1827. The Primitive as- 
sociations have organized no denominational agencies 
although they do some educational and evangelistic 
work. They generally oppose Sunday schools, and 
secret societies, and instrumental music in church 
services. They practice foot-washing. 

Negro Primitive Baptists 

In 1865 the Negro Primitive Baptists were organized 
separately from that white denomination at Columbia, 
Tennessee, by Thomas Williamson. Seeking ordina- 
tion from his denomination without success, he with 
two others, nevertheless, felt the "power of the Holy 
Ghost" and began to preach, baptize, and establish 
churches. Mostly in the South has the movement 
spread, so that there are 925 churches and 43,978 
members who believe in immersion, the Lord's Sup- 
per, and washing the saints' feet. 

Cooperation — Independent Baptists 

With so much being done in behalf of the non- 
English speaking and other people, the question was 
nevertheless raised whether a cooperative relation- 
ship with the English speaking churches was best 
suited for the American development of the non- 
English speaking churches. Some Swedish Free 

Sig.— 10 



136 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Baptists, immigrants to this country, held their 
first conference at Dassel, Minnesota, in 1893 as 
the Swedish Independent Baptist Church, later 
changed to the Scandinavian Independent Baptist De- 
nomination of America. This body was divided, and 
one group in 1912 was incorporated and named the 
Scandinavian Independent Baptist Denomination of the 
United States of America. In 1923 the other group 
took the name of the Scandinavian Free Baptist So- 
ciety of the United States of America. The two groups 
consolidated at Garden Valley, Wisconsin, in 1927 and 
adopted the name of the Independent Baptist Church 
of America. The object of that body of 13 churches 
and 222 members is to carry on an independent gospel 
work at home and abroad. 

Liberalism 

By religious statesmanship the Baptist family was 
saved from answering the most important religious 
question of the twentieth century, namely, whether 
the denomination should be abreast of the scientific 
thinking of recognized scholars of the world. From 
the denominational statements which have been ac- 
cepted as policies respecting Calvinism, the day of 
worship, revivalism, missionary endeavors, and work 
among non-English speaking and other people, it was 
feared that in time the denomination would swing to 
the rationalistic views on this subject. Modern thought 
was already prevalent among them. The denomina- 
tion had been organized. Urbanization was rapidly 
progressing. As practical duties were mastered, sim- 
ple faith was challenged in proportion as education 



The Family Circle 137 

became widely diffused. Attention was correspond- 
ingly turned to philosophic speculations and critical 
investigations of all fields of culture, including religion. 

Influence on the Baptists 

Without attempting to trace the historical develop- 
ment of modern thought, it will suffice here to point out 
a few high points. At the Southern Baptist Theolog- 
ical Seminary Dr. Crawford H. Toy resigned under 
pressure after the publication of a non-Messianic in- 
terpretation of Isaiah fifty-three. At Harvard he be- 
came a Theist. Here and there a professor of The- 
ology, including the well-known Augustus Hopkins 
Strong and the influential William Newton Clarke, ex- 
pounded doctrines not identical with what the majority 
of Baptists believed orthodox. Their views did not 
pass unchallenged, but when the Divinity School of 
the University of Chicago openly espoused liberal re- 
ligion, concerted opposition was aroused. Because of 
his liberal views Dr. George Burman Foster was trans- 
ferred from the faculty of the Divinity School to the 
faculty of the University. Baptists became divided 
into two groups, fundamentalists and liberalists, the 
fundamentalists going as far as to establish a theo- 
logical seminary in two centers where Baptist theo- 
logical education had been prosecuted for years. Al- 
though Baptist churches in Illinois withdrew to the 
Southern Convention because of the growing liberal- 
ism of the Northern Baptists, nevertheless it is in- 
teresting to note that the sharpest conflict in the Bap- 
tist family over the issue of liberalism has been in 
the South. 



138 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

American Baptist Association 

In protest against the spreading liberal views 
the Baptist General Association, began in 1905 as 
perpetuators of apostolic succession, was reorganized 
at Texarkana, Ark.-Tex., in 1924, with a new em- 
phasis as the present American Baptist Association. 
At this session in the height of the fundamental-lib- 
eral stir they felt called upon to express their belief in 
"the infallible verbal inspiration of the whole Bible; 
the Triune God; the Genesis account of creation; the 
deity of Jesus Christ, and the Virgin Birth; his cruci- 
fixion and suffering, as vicarious and substitutionary; 
the bodily resurrection and ascension of Christ and the 
bodily resurrection of his saints; the second coming 
of Christ, personal and bodily, as the crowning event 
of this Gentile Age." In 1926 they numbered 1,431 
churches and 117,858 members with 2 colleges, 2 or- 
phanages, and 2 newspapers. Their missionary and 
Sunday school work is done through committees. 



CHAPTER X 

SOCIAL PROGRESS 

Educational Institutions 

Educational institutions generally and Baptist 
schools in particular have given social direction to the 
progress of the denomination. A list compiled in 1930 
of 58 Northern, 96 Southern, and 49 Negro Baptist 
schools with 77,087 students, property worth $130,- 
884,000, and endowments of $155,378,492 gains sig- 
nificance as a factor in social development. 

Schools of Higher Education 

Some schools of higher education founded by Bap- 
tists by 1845 and now existing in the East are Brown 
University, Providence, Rhode Island, 1764 ; Colby Col- 
lege, Waterville, Maine, 1813; Colgate University, 
Hamilton, New York, 1818 ; Columbian College, Wash- 
ington, D. C, now the non-denominational George 
Washington University, 1821; and Bucknell College, 
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, 1845. In the West are Shurt- 
leff College, Alton, Illinois, 1827; Denison Uni- 
versity, Granville, Ohio, 1831; Kalamazoo (Michigan) 
College 1833; and Franklin (Indiana) College, 1833. 
In the South are Furman University, Greenville, South 
Carolina, 1826; Mississippi (Clinton) College, 1826; 

139 



140 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Georgetown (Kentucky) College, 1829; Mercer Uni- 
versity, Macon, Georgia, 1829; University of Rich- 
mond, Virginia, 1832; Union University, Jackson, 
Tennessee, 1834; Wake Forest (North Carolina) Col- 
lege, 1834; Howard College, Birmingham, Alabama, 
1842 ; and Baylor University, Waco, Texas, 1845. Yet 
the physical plants and endowments of all those schools 
then would not now equal the material resources of 
one of our great universities. 

Theological Schools 

At Hamilton, New York, (1817) and at Newton Cen- 
ter, Massachusetts, (1825) were established the theo- 
logical seminaries. From 1850 the founding and 
equipment of schools began to makv. re rapid ad- 
vances. An effort was made to move the University 
and Theological Seminary at Hamilton to Rochester 
in 1847. Whereupon, a party rallied to the sup- 
port of Hamilton, and another, to Rochester 
where the University of Rochester was founded 
in 1850. Similarly the Rochester Theological Semi- 
nary, founded in 1850 by the New York Baptist 
Union for Ministerial Education, came from the 
same controversy. Friends came to the support of 
the school at Hamilton until in 1870 it was named Col- 
gate University in honor of its largest benefactors, the 
sons of William Colgate. Since 1928 these two theo- 
logical schools have been united at Rochester as the 
Colgate-Rochester Divinity School. The Baptist Union 
Theological Seminary, Morgan Park, Illinois, (1867) 
became the Divinity School of the newly founded Uni- 
versity of Chicago in 1890. This University, now non- 



Social Progress 141 



denominational, ranks with the leading institutions of 
learning of the world. 

Education Leaders and Policies « 

Francis Wayland of Brown, moral and religious 
leader, Barnas Sears of Newton and Brown, and Mar- 
tin B. Anderson of Rochester, inspiring teachers and 
presidents, Alvah Hovey of Newton, theologian, Au- 
gustus Hopkins Strong of Rochester, writer, Henry 
G. Weston of Crozer (1868), administrator, Booker 
Taliaferro Washington of Tuskegee, educator, and Wil- 
liam Rainey Harper of Chicago, builder, are a few lead- 
ers who set the wheels of educational progress in mo- 
tion. It may be, however, that the future denomina- 
tional schools will give a different type of training from 
the tax-supported institutions ; and will cooperate with 
schools of other denominations or even combine with 
them, as has been been done in the case of three Ne- 
gro institutions in Atlanta which unite in their post- 
graduate work under the name of Atlanta University, 
while they retain their identity as coordinate and co- 
operative schools — Morehouse College for men and 
Spelman College for women. 

Education for Women 

The educational movement has been a factor in giv- 
ing woman her rightful place in the churches. Al- 
though Oberlin is considered unusual in pointing the 
way toward co-education, it must not be overlooked 
that Kalamazoo College of Michigan was chartered 
the same year on a co-educational basis. Since 1819 
when Greenville (South Carolina) Woman's College 
began, fully three other women's colleges in the South 



142 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

founded prior to 1845 have continued to this day — 
Judson of Marion, Alabama, 1838, Limestone of Gaff- 
ney, South Carolina, 1845, and Baylor of Belton, Texas, 
1845. In 1865 when Matthew Vassar founded and 
adequately endowed the woman's college at Pough- 
keepsie, New York, which bears his name, a potent in- 
fluence for feminine achievement was begun. Women 
can now attend the Baptist higher institutions of learn- 
ing either as special students or on a coeducational 
basis. 

Joanna P. Moore and Woman's American Baptist 
Home Mission Society 

Northern antedate Southern Baptists by ten years 
in recognizing women in organized denominational 
work. Since 1873 Miss Joanna P. Moore (1823-1915) 
had been laboring among the Negroes of New Orleans 
under a commission of the Home Mission Society but 
supported by some ladies in Illinois. Her appeals 
were mostly responsible for the formation of the Wom- 
an's American Baptist Home Mission Society in 1877, 
which commissioned her its first missionary, and which 
has subsequently worked mostly among Indian, non- 
English speaking, and Negro peoples. Many of this 
generation remember Mother Moore. She thought 
black, and by her uncommon tact and good sense was 
able to lift black women and black children from ig- 
norance and superstition not only in New Orleans but 
over the Southland. 

Spelman College 

The tour of investigation of Sophia B. Packard to 
New Orleans showed her and her companion, Harriet 



Social Progress 143 



E. Giles, the plight of black women. In April, 1881, 
those two New England women began in the base- 
ment of the Friendship Church, Atlanta, Georgia, what 
has become Spelman College. Hartshorn Memorial 
College, Richmond, Virginia, 1883, is a part of the in- 
fluence set in motion by Mother Moore. 

Miss Moore among Negro Baptists 

Moreover, Miss Moore was present at the organiza- 
tion of the Baptist Foreign Mission Convention, and 
her puritanic presence was felt in its subsequent de- 
liberations and in the American National Baptist Con- 
vention and now by Hope, organ of her Fireside School. 
The high regard for women among Negro Baptists is 
attributable largely to Joanna P. Moore. 

Women's Place in the Denomination 

Of course, there are other women in the North and 
in the South who have been useful, a helpmeet like 
Ann Hasseltine Judson, an organizer like Ann J. 
Graves, a writer like Hannah Chaplain Conant, and 
those wives who, though silent in public, know full well 
the pangs of leadership of their husbands. Baptist 
women now number 100 to every 70 men in the en- 
tire denomination. With equality granted by the Fed- 
eral Constitution, it is not surprising that some 
churches have recognized women on their official 
boards, and in the North a few have been ordained 
ministers. The fact that clerical courtesies of the rail- 
roads are extended to an increasing number of Baptist 
women shows that in practical usefulness hundreds of 
them perform ministerial duties. 



144 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 
Place of Children 

The better training of children, too, has developed 
simultaneously with the rise of women. The earliest 
Baptist Sunday school was in the First Church, Paw- 
tucket, Rhode Island, in 1797, but it did not introduce 
religious features until 1805. Other schools followed 
as people became aware of the value of a child. The 
Young Reaper of the New England Baptists was the 
first juvenile paper in the United States. Publica- 
tions for youths marked the beginning of Sunday 
school literature. So today in almost countless ways 
through the Sunday school, Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety, Baptist Young People's Union, Church Vacation 
School, and Week Day religious instruction Baptists 
are attempting to influence the habit forming period 
of boys and girls for Christian citizenship. 

The Press— Denominational Periodicals 

People have become more socially enlightened not 
only because of educational institutions but because of 
the spread of intelligence through modern inventions. 
Probably none has had such a unifying, educational, 
and stimulating influence as the press. The Baptist 
Annual Register (1790) of England supplied the first 
printed general religious intelligence among American 
Baptists. The Georgia Analytical Repository, a bi- 
monthly magazine for "May and June, 1802," with 
Henry Holcombe, editor, was the first American Bap- 
tist periodical. It failed to receive adequate support. 
The Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Magazine, of- 
ficial organ of the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary 



Social Progress 145 



Society, issued in September, 1803, has continued to 
this day. In 1817 as the American Baptist Magazine 
it became the bi-monthly mouthpiece of the Triennial 
Convention, and, confining its issues to missionary in- 
telligence in 1835, its name was changed to the Bap- 
tist Missionary Magazine the next year. With its field 
enlarged to include Home Missions, it is still published 
by the Board of Missionary Cooperation under the 
name of Missions. The Christian Watchman, begun in 
1819, was the first weekly established and survives 
as the Watchman-Examiner, after having absorbed 
the Christian Reflector (1848) and the Christian Era 
(1875) and joined with the Examiner, itself repre- 
senting some seven periodicals. 

Early State Organs 

Some of the older periodicals that have continued 
as state papers have been the Christian Index (1821), 
continuing the Columbian Star of Washington, started 
by Luther Rice, removed to Philadelphia, and now the 
organ of the Georgia Baptists; the Religious Herald 
(1828) of Virginia; the Biblical Recorder (1833) of 
North Carolina, and the Baptist and Reflector (1834) 
of Tennessee. The Western (Kentucky) Recorder, in- 
debted for its existence to many periodicals but to 
none more than the Baptist Banner (1825), was the 
pioneer Baptist journal west of the Alleghanies. 

Zion's Advocate (1828) in Maine, the Journal and 
Messenger (1831) of Ohio, combining papers in Ken- 
tucky and Indiana and serving Ohio, Indiana, West 
Virginia, and part of Pennsylvania in its day, and 
the present popular Christian Herald (1841) of Michi- 



146 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

gan were early papers in the North. The Standard 
of Chicago, now named The Baptist, variously owned 
and named since its first issue as the Christian Times 
(1853), is probably the best known in the Northwest. 
Of the scores of periodicals edited by Negro Baptists, 
the American Baptist of Louisville, Kentucky, begun 
in 1879, and the Georgia Baptist, begun by William J. 
White of Augusta in 1880, are the oldest. This latter 
paper reached England and Africa. 

Moulders of Thought 

Today a vast body of reading matter is extant — 
church school literature, study courses, periodicals of 
schools, churches, associations, and conventions and 
of all denominational agencies of the Baptist fam- 
ily, non-English speaking, Northern, Southern, and 
Negro. While they aim to be denominational, they 
are also moulders of thought on public questions. 

In this connection the use of religious songs as a 
means of social regeneration as well as of spiritual 
fervor and gospel emphasis is worth noticing. As 
dynamic religion became a matter of feeling, the 
worship of the early Baptists included the singing of 
selections from Watts, Doddridge, Wesley, and oth- 
ers like Burkitt. The Negroes used those and melo- 
dies of their own which were the results of some ex- 
perience in their lives, as "Steal away to Jesus," or 
which were based on Wesleyan tunes or meters. Be- 
cause of the scarcity of books the hymns were mostly 
"lined" from memory. The "spirit" often resulting in 
conversions was disseminated through the masses by 



Social Progress 147 



the leader and congregation shaking hands while sing- 
ing. 1 

Early Hymns by English Baptists 

Some of the better known hymns contributed by 
English Baptists to the revival movement are George 
Keith's, "How Firm a Foundation," Robert Robinson's, 
"Come, Thou Fount of Every Blessing," Samuel Sten- 
nett's, "Majestic Sweetness Sits Enthroned" and "On 
Jordan's Stormy Banks I Stand," Samuel Medley's, 
"0 Could I Speak the Matchless Worth," John Faw- 
cett's, "Blest Be the Tie That Binds," and later Ed- 
ward Mote's, "My Hope Is Built on Nothing Less." 
Other denominations recognize also Benjamin Francis 
and Miss Anne Steele as important Baptist hymn writ- 
ers. 

Hymns by American Baptists 

American Baptists carried on this influence with 
early hymns like "0 Could I Find from Day to Day" 
by Benjamin Cleveland in 1792 and "The Day Is Past 
and Gone" by John Leland in 1804. Samuel Francis 
Smith, pastor of the Baptist church at Waterville, 
Maine, made a lasting contribution to hymnology when 
he wrote "My Country! 'Tis of Thee" in 1883. A doc- 
trinal theme such as baptism in some hymns of Doctor 
Smith, Thomas Baldwin, and Adoniram Judson was 
often stressed. It is not a mere coincidence that those 



1. See Burkitt and Read, A Concise History of the Kehu- 
kee Baptist Association, 144f. 



148 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

men not only devoted their talents to indoctrinating 
the churches by their songs but carried the exuberant 
spirit into the social tasks of missions of the denomi- 
nation, at the home base and on the field. In fact, 
Smith wrote a great missionary hymn, "The Morning 
Light Is Breaking," and for more than a decade was 
editor of the publications of the Missionary Union. In 
collaboration with Dr. Baron Stow, who also held posi- 
tions of honor and responsibility in the Union, he com- 
piled the Psalmist which was a standard denomina- 
tional hymnal in its day. Largely through the in- 
flunce of Basil Manly, Jr., himself a hymn writer, the 
compiling of hymns was 'started in the South. 
The Little Sunday-school Hymn Book and the Con- 
federate Sunday-school Hymn Book exhausted two 
editions each and totaled about 25,000 copies. From 
the Southern Baptist Publication Society the Sacred 
Lute hymn book was issued. 

Baptist Hymnal 

It was Secretary Griffith and A. J. Rowland of the 
Publication Society with the endorsement of Northern 
and Southern Baptists who preserved many of those 
and other hymns in the Baptist Hymnal of 1883. Dr. 
E. H. Johnson was associate editor while W. H. Doane, 
Mus. Doc, was musical editor. Included in the 
Hymnal was Benjamin Beddome's, "Did Christ o'er 
Sinners Weep ?" with the more spirited songs of newer 
writers. There was also the Baptist P. P. Bliss (1838- 
1876), best remembered as writer of the words and 
music of " 'Tis the Promise of God" and "Almost Per- 
suaded," and composer of "It Is Well With My Soul," 



Social Progress 149 



and Rev. Robert Lowry (1826-1899), author of "Shall 
We Gather at the River?" and composer of abiding 
tunes as "I Need Thee Every Hour" and "All the Way 
My Saviour Leads Me." Doane himself was a prolific 
musical composer if not a writer of words. Watts' 
"Alas, and Did My Saviour Bleed," Sankey's, "Tell Me 
the Old, Old Story," Prentiss' "More Love to Thee, 
Christ," and that Baptist woman, Lydia Baxter's, 
"Take the Name of Jesus with You," not to mention 
the many songs of Fanny Crosby like "Jesus, Keep 
Me Near the Cross," "Pass Me Not, Gentle Saviour," 
and "Rescue the Perishing" — all these live over and 
oyer again because Doane set them to music. 

'Contribution to Social Progress 

Bliss, Lowry, and Doane alone contributed scores 
of songs to the evangelistic efforts of Moody and 
Sankey. All denominational publishers issue song 
books, but the New Baptist Hymnal is still standard. 
While some of the theology, ideas, and expressions are 
obsolete to many, others look at these and beyond the 
literal statement to a deeper meaning that sustains the 
spiritual life, the source of all human advance. Thus 
is hinted the contribution of the music of the Baptists 
to social progress just as the songs of the mediaeval 
pilgrims, of Luther, of Cromwell's army, of Wesley- 
anism, and the World War served a similar purpose. 

Reformation of Manners 

With the spread of intelligence came the reforma- 
tion of manners. At first the use of strong drink was 



150 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

considered all right. In New York City Nicholas 
Eyres, a well-to-do and benevolent brewer, opened his 
house for preaching services to Rev. Valentine Wight- 
man. Eyres was converted and baptized in 1714. The 
Gold Street Church was constituted, and Eyres was 
ordained pastor in 1724 without relinquishing his 
business. Preachers especially on the frontier were 
paid in produce which included whiskey, rum, or other 
alcoholic beverages. It is true that liquor caused one 
of the most frequent instances of the rigid discipline 
among Baptists, but it was for its misuse or "drink- 
ing too much." Had not Peck gone to the frontier 
where men reveled in dumb drunkenness and wanton 
wickedness all the time boasting that the Sabbath 
would never cross the Mississippi? 

Temperance and Prohibition 

The temperance movement had, nevertheless, made 
some headway by the organization of the American 
Society for the Promotion of Temperance in 1826 and 
had reached a great height by 1840. Jacob Knapp, 
the Baptist evangelist, so impressed six hard drinkers 
that they came together, pledged total abstinence and 
started what is called the Washingtonian Movement. 
Some 600,000 are reported to have enrolled, and, 
though 450,000 of this number are said to have re- 
lapsed, there were other thousands who were sincere 
and changed their manner of life. The churches had 
every inspiration to stress moderation in all things and 
total abstinence from strong drink. The whole tem- 
perance movement was set back by the Civil War and 
the Reconstruction, but the prohibition cause after- 



Social Progress 151 



wards was never so actively fostered by the denomina- 
tional schools, women, children, press, and pulpit as 
when it was caught up by politics, the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, the Anti-Saloon League, 
and finally by the Federal Constitution in 1919. 
Seemingly the social forces of the denomination co- 
operating with all agencies of civic righteousness will 
continue the crusade for enforcement of temperance 
by legislation. The Social Service Commission of the 
Southern Convention says in 1932: "The issue has 
been boiled down to good citizenship versus bad citi- 
zenship, to law versus lawlessness, to prohibition 
versus the saloon, and there can be but one answer 
for all Christian and moral leaders." 

The Social Gospel 

The ideals and values of this social progress run im- 
mediately back to the revivalism of the eighteenth 
century with Edwards, the Wesleys, and Whitfield 
who preached a gospel of escape from a cold, dog- 
matic, and impractical church. Some people interpreted 
their spirit to mean that the church should become 
creative of a new world order, and that Christianity 
should become dynamic, evangelizing, civilizing, and 
Christianizing wherever man was found. Parties of 
people grew up who grappled with the problems con- 
nected with intemperance, prisons, factories, slaves, 
and with whatever else needed loosening from the 
shackles that bound it. The fervor of the Christian 
socialists was fanned into a mighty conflagration by 
this new emphasis on the worth of an individual. It 
was not lit yesterday. It was begun by Jesus of Naz- 
areth. 

Sig.— 11 



152 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Christian Socialists among Baptists 

The Baptist Congress of 1882 was organized spe- 
cifically "for the discussion of current questions" of the 
social order and met yearly for about thirty years. 
Four young Baptist ministers, among whom were Wal- 
ter Rauschenbush and Leighton Williams, published 
For the Right in the vicinity of New York in 1889. 
That liberal organ, devoted to Christian socialism, only 
lived a little more than a year, but seed had been sown 
for the formation in Philadelphia in December, 1892, 
of the undenominational Brotherhood of the Kingdom, 
for the study and propaganda of the social teachings 
and gospel of Jesus. Rev. Mr. Williams became sec- 
retary with headquarters in New York. 

Their Literature 

Dean Shailer Mathews of the Divinity School of the 
University of Chicago did much to popularize these 
views in 1897 by his book, The Social Teachings of Je- 
sus, and again in 1907 by his, The Church and the 
Changing Order. The same year the somewhat so- 
cialistic indictment of the church in Christianity and 
the Social Crisis came from the pen of Walter Rau- 
schenbusch at the Rochester Theological Seminary. 
This viewpoint among the Baptists was thus cham- 
pioned by the Divinity School of Chicago and the 
Rochester Seminary. 

Practical Emphasis 

To meet practical situations this emphasis has often 
taken the form of an educational campaign, or of tem- 
porary relief sometimes with the establishment of a 



Social Progress 153 

local program to meet some emergency, or of coopera- 
tion with existing welfare agencies, or of some or- 
ganization for permanent help, but always insisting 
that the love of Christ "be accepted as a structural 
principle of all legitimate community life, economic, 
political, and cultural." 

Homes for Aged 

Baptist homes for the aged and children, orphanages 
and hospitals have been established. Two homes, one 
in Brooklyn and another in New York City, began the 
movement. In 1930 there were reported 33 Baptist 
homes with a property valuation of $5,290,400 and 
caring for 2,279 inmates. They included 5 German and 
2 Swedish homes and 4 of the South, exclusive of 
the few scattered Negro Baptist homes such as the 
one in Richmond and in New York. 

Children's Homes 

The German Baptist Orphan's Home of St. Joseph, 
Michigan (1871), was the first Baptist orphanage. 
There is also one among the New England French- 
Americans at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, one for the 
Indians at Bacone, Oklahoma, and one in Alaska at 
Kodiak. The Northern Baptists have 11 homes in 
7 states and Alaska, and the Southern Baptists, 22 
homes in 16 states and the District of Columbia, valued 
together at $5,978,300 and helping 4,631 children. 
There are two homes in the North for Baptist mission- 
aries' children. 



154 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Hospitals 

The establishment of hospitals in the denomination 
is a development of this century because only two, the 
Missouri of St. Louis, 1890, and the New England of 
Boston, 1893, had their beginnings earlier. This work 
has been mostly under state auspices, except in the 
South where the Southern Convention built a tuber- 
culosis Sanatorium in El Paso, Texas, in 1919, and a 
general hospital in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1924. 
In 1930 Baptists of the North had 5 hospitals with 
property valued at $3,191,600 and treated 14,752 pa- 
tients, while Baptists of the South had 26 hospitals 
with property valued at $13,653,500 and treated 84,- 
974 patients. 

Social Philanthropy 

The Northern Baptists have developed a half doz- 
en or more community centers to care for Negro mi- 
grants, of which the Christian Center of Cleveland is 
highly typical. The University of Chicago has pro- 
vided a settlement in the Stock Yards district. Insti- 
tutional churches such as the Temple (Grace) of Phila- 
delphia with Temple University as an outgrowth of 
the social prophecy of Russell Conwell and the 
Immanuel of Chicago are meeting specific needs, 
not to mention the growing prevalence of philanthropy 
among Baptist persons of wealth. It is a mooted ques- 
tion, however, whether religious organizations should 
actually prosecute social work where there are other 
agencies better prepared and definitely committed to it. 
In the field of providing the Christian inspiration for 



Social Progress 155 



the social tasks the church has been without a formid- 
able rival. 

Christian Inspiration 

Throughout the entire field, from the most elaborate 
organization of Baptist life down to the most humble 
church, is social opinion thus given a meaningful ex- 
pression whether by resolution or statement. Social 
problems have become intensified since the War, and 
the Social Service Committee of the Northern Baptists 
says that this industrial crisis (1929-33) "is a symp- 
tom of a diseased civilization" and asks "What hope 
can there be in any system that is not based on the 
simple and sufficient morality of Jesus?" It points 
out a remedy which "lies in the awakening of an in- 
telligent faith in the power of Christianity to per- 
meate society with a better spirit. Social redemption 
means for communities, corporations, labor organiza- 
tions, political parties, governments, and the world's 
whole civilization a moral readjustment analogous to 
individual repentance and conversion." The message 
comes from the Riverside Church, New York : "Christ 
or Pilate — that is the question. There they stand 
together in the judgment hall. One of them cares. 
But the other is washing his hands." It is impossible 
to measure the social urge of the pulpit with its thou- 
sands of minor prophets also who have placed their pul- 
pits on the hillsides, and who do cry night and day: 
"Shame, shame, shame, for inasmuch as you min- 
istered not to the least of my little ones you ministered 
not to me." 



CHAPTER XI 

EUROPEAN BAPTISTS 

In France — Beginnings 

The development of Baptists in Europe is not a con- 
tinuance of Mennonite influence as it was in England 
but is a result of comparatively recent missionary ac- 
tivity. In 1832 a mission was established in France 
by the Triennial Convention under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Ira Chase of the Newton Theological Institu- 
tion. There were a few scattered Christians in Paris 
who unknowingly held to Baptist views before the com- 
ing of Professor Chase and J. C. Rostan, a French- 
man from America, who built a Baptist chapel in Paris. 
Rostan was succeeded after his death within two years 
by Isaac Willmarth of Newton. By 1835 a church 
had been organized of six members which had a na- 
tive pastor, Joseph Thieffy, the next year. Within 
two years there were seven churches, largely called 
forth by the missionary zeal of the pastor at Paris. 

Reorganization 

Religious proscriptions together with changing po- 
litical situations scattered all of these churches. The 
church at Paris was reorganized with 4 members in 

156 



European Baptists 157 

1850 by T. T. Devan who subsequently began a church 
in Lyons in 1852. Through the evangelistic efforts of 
Reuben Saillens and others another church was be- 
gun in Paris, and labors prospered elsewhere in France. 
Since 1856 the French Baptists have carried on their 
own work with their own workers except in establish- 
ing their theological school in Paris in 1879. The 
British Baptist Year Book for 1930 reports that the 
French Baptists have 32 churches, 33 pastors, and 
1,939 members, a number less than they had two dec- 
ades ago. 

In Germany 

Baptist growth in Germany is singular because it 
was a movement originated by the Germans, because 
it was marked by uncommon determination to succeed 
in spite of bitter persecution, and because it was the 
medium through which most of Europe and some of 
the rest of the world was recruited for the Baptist 
cause. 

Johann Gerard Oncken 

Johann Gerard Oncken (1800-1884) was the leader. 
He was born at Varel in Oldenburg and taken to Great 
Britain by a Scottish merchant in his fourteenth year. 
Becoming a Congregationalist, he returned to Ger- 
many in 1823 as a missionary of the newly formed 
Continental Society for which he labored five years. 
Subsequently, he and a few others became convinced of 
believers' baptism from a study of the Scriptures. 



158 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

The Hamburg Church 

The Triennial Convention commissioned Professor 
Barnas Sears, who went to Germany in 1833 for theo- 
logical study, to communicate to the Board the state 
of religion in central Europe, especially Germany. At 
Hamburg he became acquainted with Oncken who had 
opened a book store as agent of the Edinburgh Bible 
Society and the Lower Saxony Tract Society. At 
midnight, April 12, 1834, Mr. Oncken and wife with 
five others at their own request were baptized in the 
Elbe. The next day they were constituted a church, 
and Mr. Oncken was ordained pastor, and in September 
appointed a missionary of the Triennial Convention 
with C. F. Lange. The pastor said in 1836: "There is 
not a member in our church but what is, in one way 
or another, doing something in promoting the extension 
of Christ's kingdom." The church at once became a 
beehive of activity with its Sunday services, prayer 
meetings, Bible class, monthly concert, and Temper- 
ance Society. 

Success of the Baptists 

It became a matter of general knowledge that the 
Baptists under Oncken were enjoying a degree of 
popularity. The meeting place by 1837 was no longer 
a private dwelling but a spacious hall capable of ac- 
commodating 300 people. Among the converts and 
helpers was Julius Koebner, a Jewish engraver, later 
to exert a helpful influence as preacher and hymn 
writer for Baptists churches in Germany and Den- 
mark. A church was constituted at Berlin in 1837 



European Baptists 159 

with Gottfried Wilhelm Lehmann and five others as 
members. Oncken, Koebner, and Lehman became 
popularly known to German Baptists as "the clover 
leaf." 

Opposition 

The success of the Baptists with their emphasis on 
the observance of the Lord's Day stirred up the com- 
mon people, the Lutherans, and the Senate. "I have 
stood and preached the gospel," said Oncken, "till 
every pane of glass in the windows was broken by 
the stones thrown by the mob; and at the risk of my 
life proclaimed the wonders of redeeming grace and 
love." Mr. Oncken was often put in jail, once for 
four weeks in 1840, but what was imprisonment com- 
pared with a vision realized — four churches, Ham- 
burg (1834), Stuttgart (1834), Berlin (1837), and 
Oldenburg (1837), established; 114 persons converted; 
5000 copies of the memoir of Mrs. Judson distributed, 
and 263,000 tracts scattered broadcast? 

Organization 

The genesis of all subsequent German development 
occurred during the lifetime of Oncken. Beginning in 
1838, tracts were published, so that it became nec- 
essary to incorporate the private enterprise of Oncken 
into a society to take care of the publication work. 
Headquarters remained at Hamburg until the spring 
of 1899 when they were moved to their own building 
in Cassel. Five denominational papers are published 
in addition to tracts and books. The Hamburg Bib- 



160 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

lical School took shape to prepare indigenous workers 
in 1848, but up to 1880, when the present seminary at 
Hamburg was opened, theological instruction was of 
the most elementary character and was given for only 
a few months each year. Now the seminary has a 
suitable building at Horn and a four years' course of 
instruction. 

Their Strength 

The churches of Germany came together in 1849 and 
formed a general Triennial Conference, known as the 
German Baptist Union since 1855. Out of the 70 
churches gathered by 1856 only 8 had regular chapels, 
but within a century the gospel has gone clear across 
Germany in commodious and well-arranged buildings, 
increasing the membership from 7 to 60,939 with 
30,212 Sunday school scholars, 294 pastors and mis- 
sionaries, 260 churches, and, according to a recent 
Jahrbuch of J. G. Lehmann, 12 associations. 

During the World War 

Only during the World War did the German Bap- 
tists have any dark days comparable to their days of 
persecution. After the Foreign Mission Society heard 
of their deplorable condition through its delegated 
Commission in 1920, it sent Rev. Prof. Jacob Hen- 
richs to bear the greetings of the Baptists in America 
to the Baptists of France and Germany. An extract 
from his manuscript report shows how the historic 
struggle for Alsace-Lorraine affected the denomina- 
tion there: 

Our Baptist churches in these two provinces have lost more 
than half of their constituents 



European Baptists 161 

Strassburg, though not the oldest, was our most numerous 
church before and during the War. In Mr. P. Schild it has 
lost its capable pastor, and in Mr. S. Mascher, who was its 
"elder" for about thirty years, it had to surrender a very 
able and beloved teacher. Its present membership is only 47. 
The loss of so many (49) members naturally disheartened 
the church and resulted in the remaining ones looking 
gloomily to the future. The Sunday school ceased to exist. 
The choir hung its harp on the willows. The members be- 
gan to scatter. Limited financial resources forced the church 
to hire a smaller meeting place and to seek reunion with 
its mother church at Mulhausen. With this church it bade 
farewell to the German-Rheinish and joined the Franco- 
Swiss Association of Baptist churches. At this critical time 
came the call for a German-American minister, to heal the 
breach if possible. . . It was quite evident that neither a Ger- 
man pastor nor a Frenchman, if such were available, would 
meet the situation, and no Alsatian could be had. 

Spread of German Baptists 

The large number of German Baptist churches is 
all the more remarkable because they have survived 
such hazardous experiences, and they are noteworthy 
because they have projected themselves into Denmark 
(1838), Norway (1840), Austria (1846), Sweden 
(1848), Lithuania (1854), Roumania (1856), and 
Russia (1861). German Baptists have missionaries 
in South Africa, China, India, and America. 

In Denmark and Norway 

The Baptists movement was introduced among the 
Scandinavian people from Germany. While visiting 
Copenhagen in 1838, Julius Koebner reviewed the sub- 
ject of believers' baptism with some Lutherans who 
were not in accord with the state church. Convinced 
of the Scriptural warrant for the ordinance, eleven 
of them were baptized by Koebner and Oncken, and 



162 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

a church was organized in 1839. A pastor was or- 
dained in July of the next year. Churches at Lange- 
land and Aalberg followed as well as sundry persecu- 
tions; so both English and American Baptists sent 
delegations to seek to mitigate governmental restric- 
tions. Some of the Danish Baptists emigrated to 
America because of the persecutions, but others re- 
mained to establish the work firmly during the period 
when toleration began after 1850. The Danish 
churches, which had been in the German Union from 
the beginning of the organization withdrew to form 
their own national body in 1887. Many of their trained 
ministers had come from America, but in 1895 they 
founded a theological school of their own. They 
have a publication work and are not behind other Dan- 
ish Christians in missionary zeal although they num- 
ber only 31 churches, 30 pastors, 5, 647 members, and 
6,820 Sunday school pupils. 

Two years after German Baptists started mission- 
ary work in Norway in 1840, a church was organized. 
Climatic conditions seem no barrier to immersion, for 
strong churches exist in the northerly Tromsoe and at 
Christiania and Frederickshold. In the whole coun- 
try in 1930, 48 churches, 39 ministers, 5,151 members, 
and 4,336 Sunday school scholars had been gathered 
through the influence of German and Swedish Bap- 
tists. 

In Sweden — Beginnings 

The largest number of Scandinavian Baptists is in 
Sweden where there were 681 churches, 712 ministers, 
63,310 members, and 62,364 Sunday school scholars in 



European Baptists 163 

1930. The story of the beginnings revolves around 
two Swedish sailors, the one, Gustaf W. Schroeder, 
who was converted in New Orleans by the Methodists, 
but who became a Baptist in 1844, and who met the 
other, Frederick 0. Nilsson, who had been converted 
in New York some ten years before. Nilsson was led 
to Baptist views by Schroeder and baptized in August, 
1847, by Oncken. A Baptist minister from Denmark 
baptized five persons at Gothenburg in 1848 who with 
Nilsson were constituted a church in September. From 
the first and for three years the church and missionary 
labors of Pastor Nilsson were at once so successful 
and attractive that Nilsson was banished. Sojourning 
a short time at Copenhagen, he finally reached Min- 
nesota with a colony of immigrants. 

Andreas Wiberg 

From then on Andreas Wiberg, an educated former 
Lutheran minister, became the Swedish representative 
to continue the work. Having accepted Baptist views 
from Oncken and stopping at Copenhagen as he was 
en route to America, Wiberg was baptized by Nilsson 
in 1852. American interest in Sweden culminated in 
commissioning Wiberg a colporter of the Publication 
Society in 1855. He returned home the same year and 
labored so effectively as editor of a denominational pa- 
per and as missionary that when the Swedish work was 
transferred to the Missionary Union in 1866 there 
were 176 churches and 6,606 members who had their 
Conference of Swedish Baptist churches (1857) to 
promote their activities. Moreover, the Swedish 
Baptists were the first denomination to estab- 



164 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

lish Sunday schools and Christian Endeavor societies 
in their country. 

Persecutions Continued 

In the meantime, Captain Schroeder returned to 
Sweden in 1861 and gave to the church at Gothenburg 
a lot with a house of worship which he had had built 
for them. By royal permission Nilsson returned and 
became pastor, and the church enjoyed peace after 
some disturbance following the first service which 
was inspired by the State Church. Conditions were 
not so favorable for the Baptists in other parts of the 
kingdom. As a result of rigorous, though unlawful 
persecutions, many of the Swedish Baptists emi- 
grated. For example, in 1870 Captain Schroeder sent 
a colony to America who named their stopping place 
in Aroostook County, Maine, New Sweden, and there 
they planted a Baptist church. 

Final Triumph 

The success of the Swedish Baptists was due to the 
facts that they, like their German brethren, had 
strong leaders and an uncommon missionary zeal. 
Since 1866 the Bethel Theological Seminary at 
Stockholm has been preparing their ministry who 
through the Stockholm Missionary Society (1856) have 
been rendering zealous service at home and abroad, 
in Norway (1867), in Finland (1868), and in neigh- 
boring places. 

Baptist progress has not been as successful among 
the Slavic nations and among most of the other peo- 



European Baptists 165 

pies bordering on the Baltic Sea. Contact, however, 
with the Slavs was first made by the German Baptists 
at Memel in 1854 on the occasion of the burning of the 
Lithuanian church building there. Preaching efforts 
resulted in the Lithuanian mission work and also the 
more successful Lettish work. By the baptism of 
Jacobsohn, a Lett, in 1855, missionary interest was 
aroused which resulted in the organization of a church 
at Windau in 1860. Work in Latvia has greatly pros- 
pered, so that there were 114 churches, 134 ministers, 
and 10,125 members in 1930. About 1886 evan- 
gelistic efforts were begun among the Esths, an 
Asiatic people, by A. R. Schieve, a German pastor in 
St. Petersburg, and not much earlier, among the Poles 
who have proven quite as susceptible to Baptist be- 
liefs as the Letts. There are 314 churches, 426 min- 
isters, and 32,724 Baptists in Finland, Esthonia, 
Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, nations that have 
arisen from the ruins of Imperial Russia. 

Russia 

Baptist beginnings in Russia are bound up with the 
missionary labors of German Baptists. The effect of 
a division in the Mennonite church of south Russia, 
composed largely of German immigrants, produced the 
Mennonite Brethren in 1860 who were less formal and 
insistent on their baptism and the Lord's Supper. 
They did not become a part of the German Baptist 
movement although Oncken ordained Abraham Ungar, 
their leader, in 1869. After that the Baptists in south 
Russia owed their origin to those Brethren. That 
was one company, and the other centered around Tif lis 



166 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

to which Kalweit, a German Baptist preacher, went in 
1862. Five years elapsed before he had a convert, 
but Mikita Woronin, a merchant, proved a spiritual as- 
set. Almost immediately he felt called to preach, 
baptizing six of his countrymen on April 18, 1869, and 
forming them into a church at Tiflis. By much 
evangelical labor within ten years (1879) the Baptists 
were so favorably brought to the attention of the gov- 
ernment that they were recognized along with other 
Protestant denominations in Russia. Although the 
statistics for 1930 reporting 3,129 churches, 830 min- 
isters, and 1,000,000 Baptists are questioned in the 
light of recent religious proscriptions in Soviet Rus- 
sia, it is not surprising that Baptist polity is adapted 
to the religious organization of the masses. 

Other European Nations 

Other peoples among whom are found appreciable 
numbers of Baptists are the Dutch (1845), Hungarians 
(1846), Bulgarians (1878), and Bohemians (1880), 
all of whom received their initial urge from the Ger- 
man Baptists. There are small churches in Belgium, 
Portugal, and Switzerland. The breakup of Austria- 
Hungary into minority nations after the War has 
opened still other fields of usefulness for the denomina- 
tion. 

Greece 

In 1836 the Triennial Convention began a mission in 
Greece with two American missionaries and their 
wives. Probably the greatest services at this station 



European Baptists 167 

were the Greek translation of Wayland's, Elements of 
Moral Science and of Bunyan's, Pilgrim's Progress, 
and the use of three or four native assistants of whom 
Demetrius Sakellarios became the best known. The 
mission stayed closed for fifteen years after 1856 but 
was resumed to be finally discontinued in 1886. 

European Policy of Northern Baptists 

Probably because Europe already has the gospel, 
no American missionaries are now sent there by 
Northern Baptists, but according to agreements with 
the Baptist General Conference, which met in London 
in July of 1920, the Foreign Mission Society cooperates 
with the autonomous Baptist organizations in Czech- 
oslovakia, Denmark, Esthonia, France, Germany, Lat- 
via, Lithuana, Norway, Poland, Russia, and Sweden,, 
mainly by aiding in ministerial education and support, 
through a special representative in Paris. 

European Policy of Southern Baptists 

The Southern Baptists with a large Roumanian Mis- 
sion (1921) continue to send American missionaries 
to Europe and supply the supervision for the Spanish, 
Jugoslavian, and Hungarian stations. The Rou- 
mainian mission reports (1932) 275 churches, 152 
ministers, and 36,928 members. The Spanish Mission 
(1921) with its national convention of Baptists in- 
cludes 34 churches, 30 ministers, and 1,122 members. 
Within ten years the Baptists have become known in 
Jugoslavia, largely through a native ministry which 
established 15 churches with nearly 1,500 members. A 

Sig.— 12 



168 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

similar arrangement is followed in one other European 
country, Hungary, but in connection with the Hun- 
garian Baptist Union of America, where 69 churches, 
83 ministers, and 12,087 members are reported. The 
Seminary at Budapest has a native teacher who is a 
graduate of the Southern Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary. 

Italy 

Italy presented a heroic challenge to Baptists in 
1870 when the Southern Convention began operations 
there with the appointment of a missionary. For the 
lack of leadership the work did not prosper until Dr. 
G. B. Taylor left Staunton, Virginia, and went to Italy 
in 1872. Simultaneously, W. C. Van Meter was in Italy 
from 1872 to 1877 under appointment of the Publi- 
cation Society. The mission has been prosperous 
throughout the Peninsula. Superintendent D. G. Whit- 
tinghill writes from Rome: 



"Thirty years ago, when I came to this country as a mis- 
sionary, we had 24 churches, 104 baptisms, 615 church mem- 
bers, and only 4 church buildings. Collections amounted to 
only $900.00. In 1931 we had 52 churches, 371 baptisms, 
3,248 members, and collections amounted to nearly $9,000.00. 
"We now have 23 houses of worship with two buildings in 
course of construction, a Theological School, a Publishing 
House, an Orphanage, a Young People's Movement, and a 
Woman's Missionary Society in the act of being organized. 
In addition the Baptist name Is well known and respected 
by other evangelical denominations, not to mention many 
of the outside world." 



CHAPTER XII 

BAPTISTS OF TODAY 

Baptist World Alliance 

"Whereas, in the providence of God, the time has 
come when it seems fitting more fully to manifest the 
essential oneness in the Lord Jesus Christ, as their 
God and Saviour, of the churches of the Baptist order 
and faith throughout the world, and to promote the 
spirit of fellowship, service, and cooperation among 
them, while recognizing the independence of each 
particular church and not assuming the functions of 
any existing organization, it is agreed to form a Bap- 
tist Alliance, extending over every part of the world," 
is the preamble to the constitution of the Baptist 
World Alliance, formed in London, 1905, with the ven- 
erable John Clifford, M. A., LL. D., D. D., president. . 

Its Organization and Work 

The constitution was amended (in italics) at the 
Philadelphia meeting in 1911 to provide for member- 
ship consisting of any General Union, Convention, or 
Association of Baptist churches, or conference of native 
churches and missionaries or general Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society. Besides the President, the Deputy 

169 



170 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 



President, the two treasurers, one for Europe and one 
for America, and similar secretaries, the executive com- 
mittee of 22 was composed of 5 from Great Britain, 7 
from the United States, 2 from Canada and 8 from the 
rest of the world. The Alliance meets once in five 
years. After the Russian government thwarted their 
plan to establish a ministerial training school there, 
little material advance has been made by the Alliance, 
but its contribution of new spirit to all the Baptists in 
the world cannot be measured. 

Baptists in the World 

According to the statistics of the Southern Conven- 
tion for 1931 Baptists had 1,655,152 members in 
Europe (including 1,000,000 in Russia), 396,466 in 
Asia, 94,954 in Africa, 9,475,178 in North America, 
64,436 in Central America and the West Indies, 43,- 
602 in South America, and 37,378 in Australia and 
New Zealand, a total of 11,767,166 communicants in 
the world. 

Call for Leaders 

i 
There are about 71,000 Baptist churches in the 

world. According to the British Baptist Year Book for 
1930 there are 12,236 more churches than there are 
ministers. It is evident that there is a place of use- 
fulness for ministers especially of a superior type al- 
though in actual life situations some facts are: (1) 
that many of the churches enumerated have an itin- 
erating ministry but are unable to support a settled 
pastor; (2) that it is difficult to get located in the Bap- 



Baptists of Today 171 

tist ministry; (3) that challenging appeals of an eco- 
nomic and social nature are extended to prospective 
preachers from allied fields; and (4) that probably 
there are more preachers of a kind than there are 
churches. Yet side by side with all of that, Baptists 
are not only increasing numerically but have earned 
social standing, political power, material resources, 
and intellectual position. Almost everywhere they 
are considered good citizens and are generally pro- 
tected except in a few places such as in Russia and in 
Jugoslavia, where in 1931 the general missionary was 
fined about ten dollars for baptizing a man who was 
also fined two dollars for allowing the ordinance. The 
case has been appealed. 

Christian Fellowship 

Except in the United States where Baptists are the 
second largest Protestant denomination, enrolling 
about eighteen per cent, of the religious population, a 
very negligible percentage of the world's religious 
population of over five hundred and fifty millions is 
included in the denomination. Fellowship with other 
groups has therefore seemed desirable as a policy to 
be pursued even in North America. American Bap- 
tists were preparing themselves for larger fellowship 
through the organization of the General Convention of 
the Baptists of North America in 1905. After some 
years the General Convention came to its end because 
other similar organizations multiplied, and, as New- 
man says, because Southern Baptists anticipated a 
problem with the Negro constituency accorded "equal- 
ity of representation and privilege" in meetings held 



172 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

in the South. Baptists of the South have never joined 
the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America. The undenominational Religious Education 
Association and the International Council of Religious 
Education from their beginnings have appealed to 
many Baptists, but the Inter-Church Word Movement 
of North American appealed only to Northern and Ne- 
gro Baptists. 

Baptists and Non-Denominationalism 

Nevertheless, individual Baptists working in non- 
Christian lands have gone so far as to ignore denomi- 
national lines altogether. A large number of Baptist 
missionaries are employed by the non-Baptist China 
Inland Mission, the Inland South American Missionary 
Union, the Africa Inland Mission, the American Board, 
and the Sudan Interior Mission. Some other missionary 
societies employ a few Baptists. Not only on the mis- 
sion field has denominationalism been perplexing but 
in rural and frontier districts. There union churches 
are found, and also sometimes in the cities. While the 
church prospers that unified the Hyde Park Baptist 
and the Hyde Park Congregational of Chicago, few 
churches have dared so far to drop the denominational 
standard ^altogether and become spokesman for a 
united Protestantism as has the Riverside Church, 
formerly the Park Avenue Baptist Church of New 
York, which, however, continues to cooperate with 
Baptist organizations. The spirit of church unity is 
not prevalent because of Baptists' awareness of their 
contributions to religious thinking. To them their 
tenets must not be thrown into a melting pot; they 



Baptists of Today 173 

have been tried by fire and have come out a succes- 
sion of pure spiritual principles from the time of the 
apostles. 

Baptist Beliefs 

i 

Baptists are definite in their beliefs about a church, 
its membership, its officers, its ordinances, and the 
Scriptures. Many evangelical Christians have accepted 
the Baptist position that a church is a spiritual entity 
though having a visible local organization, autono- 
mous and independent in all affairs. It follows that 
there is no higher group, ecclesiastical or civil, to 
which it is subject. So the church is separated from 
the state, although it honors its leaders and obeys its 
laws. Baptists believe that there should be such re- 
ligious freedom and liberty vouchsafed to each individ- 
ual by the State that anyone may for himself determine 
how he will worship God. Only those persons should 
be fellowshipped into a local church who have expe- 
rienced regeneration and have been baptized on a pro- 
fession of their faith. That excludes infants and 
stresses the equality of believers. The officers of a 
church are the pastor and the deacons. The two or- 
dinances given to the church were baptism and the 
Lord's Supper. Baptize both from its Greek meaning 
and symbolism of burying and rising has been settled 
to mean dip, plunge, immerse. Similarly the symbol- 
ism of the Lord's Supper expresses union with Christ. 
As baptism precedes church membership, the Lord's 
Supper follows as an "outward and visible sign of an 
inward and spiritual grace." 



174 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Authority of the Scriptures 

Baptists accept the authority of the Scriptures now 
as in the days of Roger Williams. When the Rhode 
Island colony was organized, these words were writ- 
ten (March 7, 1638) : "We whose names are under- 
written do here solemnly, in the presence of Jeho- 
vah, incorporate ourselves into a body politic, and, as 
he shall help, will submit our persons, lives, and es- 
tates unto our Lord Jesus Christ, the King of kings 
and Lord of lords, and to all those perfect and most 
absolute laws of his, given in his holy word of truth, 
to be guided and judged thereby." 

Those beliefs are expressed in two important con- 
fessions. The Confession of Faith "of baptized con- 
gregations," meeting in London, 1689, was adopted by 
the Philadelphia Association in 1742 as the Philadel- 
phia Confession. It is Calvinistic and has lost some of 
its influence in the North but at the South is generally 
accepted. The New Hampshire Confession of that state 
convention in 1832 modifies the strong Calvinism of 
the earlier Confession and is widely used in the North. 
Baptists have made their contribution to religious 
thought in their spiritual interpretation of the church 
and its ordinances, in the tenet of liberty of conscience, 
and in the democratic form of our government, 
as Dr. E. Y. Mullins, late president of the Southern 
Baptist Theological Seminary and of the Baptist 
World Alliance, states in his address on The Contri- 
bution of the Baptists to American Civilization, re- 
printed by the Publication Society. "Look into a New 
Testament Church and then at the American Govern- 
ment," he says, "and insight discovers that the latter 
is the projection of the shadow of the former." 



Baptists of Today 175 

Baptists in Operation 

A glance at the Baptists in operation, however, will 
reveal that the practical application of their beliefs al- 
lows great latitude. The very liberty which they have 
won for others has been appropriated to themselves, 
so that irregularities would be expected everywhere, 
but they are not numerous. David George makes an 
explanation for an unbaptized member of the church 
in Shelburne, Canada: "She. . . joined us without bap- 
tism, to which she would have submitted, had not her 
family cruelly hindered her; but she was the only one 
in our society who was not baptized." 1 The Baptists 
of Virginia soon rid themselves of their "apostle," an 
ordained minister whom they ordained again with all 
of the duties of an Episcopal Bishop. 2 Only one gen- 
eration has passed since communion was served at as- 
sociations, since associations and conventions ordained 
ministers as practiced by the Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick Association of Canada, and since feet- 
washing was in some places considered an ordinance 
to be perpetuated by the churches. In different lands 
and different sections of our own country certain va- 
riations of belief and practice are found. In Germany 
there is a general practice of having both ministers 
and elders and of celebrating the "love feast" ; in Eng- 
land Baptist churches adopt open communion and 
often open membership ; and in the Northern States of 
our country, as has been seen, there is a tendency to- 
ward open communion, while in the South the great 



1. See, Rippon, Register, i, 474-481. 

2. Semple, 57-59. 



176 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

practice is still that of close communion. While a 
cross section of the denomination will show various 
shades of doctrinal interpretation, and while Baptists 
are finding in the experiences of mankind, reduced to 
writing and unrecorded, authoritative revelations of 
God, there is no Baptist true to the deepest principles 
of his denomination, who does not allow to every other 
Baptist liberty of opinion and recognize the right of 
every one to worship God according to the dictates of 
his own conscience. 

Long Pastorates 

In the process of development changes are still com- 
ing with the years. The day of the long pastorate is 
about over. Few men have decided to give their whole 
lives to a single pastorate as E. C. Morris at Centen- 
nial Church, Helena, Arkansas, or Robert Stuart 
MacArthur at Calvary Church, New York City. They 
merited their respective honors as the President of the 
National Baptist Convention and as the President of 
the Baptist World Alliance. Few men continue a pas- 
torate for forty years like Hugh Stowell Brown at 
Myrtle Street Church, Liverpool, or for more than 
a half century like John W. M. Williams at the First 
Church, Baltimore, or for sixty years like Theodore 
Seth Harding at Wolfville Church, Nova Scotia. Few 
men are enjoying fifty years of service as Walter H. 
Brooks at Nineteenth Street Church, Washington, D. 
C, and E. R. Carter at Friendship Church, Atlanta, 
Georgia, are doing. 



Baptists of Today 177 

Restlessness Among Churches 

Congregations and ministers are becoming restless, 
and both desire a change. Yet the opportunity is not 
denied ministers to spend a long life of useful service, 
like J. A. W. Thomas who spent his life in the rural 
districts of his native county, Marlborough, South 
Carolina, or like John Leland who was a pastor over 
sixty years, or like Father Patterson of Tennessee who 
is reported to have preached eighty years. 

Preaching 

The preaching, too, has changed emphasis both in 
subject matter and in delivery. It is in many cases no 
longer primarily an exposition of simple faith nor a 
negative denunciation of things as secret societies, but 
it is an expression of truths that have to do with 
righteous living. Usually the English is non-theologi- 
cal with more spiritual connotation given to such con- 
cepts as sin, hell, and heaven. The ministry has pre- 
served something of the emotional appeal of the ser- 
mon but is losing that vividness of imagination and 
utter abandon coupled with sincerity and piety so 
characteristic of preachers of the Great Awakening 
and of John Jasper who believed in the revolution of 
the sun around the earth. Rhetorical pulpit oratory 
passed with J. L. M. Curry of Alabama, Russell Con- 
well of Pennsylvania, and Charles T. Walker of Geor- 
gia. Now preaching is rather a magnified talk. Ser- 
mons are shortened by half in time and range, from 
a quarter of an hour upwards. Any city, though, will 
reveal many types of Baptist preachers from the mys- 
tical exhorter to the calm minister. 



178 Short History of the Baptist Denomination 

Worship Places 

In the public services of the churches the element 
of worship takes many different forms and receives 
very different emphasis. The worship places, the 
churches, are being- built not only to provide an audi- 
ence room but to inspire devotees of the presence of 
God. There are church architects connected with both 
the Northern and Southern conventions who submit 
building plans of community usefulness and of 
spiritual inspiration because of the design, materials, 
proportion, color, windows, etc., recommended. It is 
startling to enter some churches most recently built 
and see the pulpit that used to be the center of interest 
moved to one side as in the European cathedrals. It 
looks as if the communion table has almost become an 
altar. So the function of the clergy appears to be as- 
suming a priestly character. Baptistries are becoming 
architecturally conspicuous, removed from their hidden 
places under the rostrum. 

Public Services 

The services of the urban churches generally con- 
sist of morning and evening worship, and the Sunday 
school and Baptist Young People's Union on Sunday, 
prayer meeting on some night of the week, and dur- 
ing the year one or more revivals and financial rallies. 
In the public services the tendency is to employ liturgy 
with chants, responsive prayers, antiphonal reading 
of Biblical selections, congregational singing with mu- 
sical instrument, sometimes with paid singers and vest- 
ed choir. Persons now living remember when preach- 



Baptists of Today 179 

ing services were held at least three times a day on 
Sunday and once or twice during the week. Now in 
many places people come to worship at one service only 
on Sunday, and at other times when something special 
is taking place. The attendance at separate commun- 
ion services has decreased greatly, so that some 
churches have combined that service with a regular 
confessional or preaching service from which many 
members absent themselves. 

Discipline 

Discipline has become a thing of the past in very 
many church circles. Some think that religion has 
become worldly; others feel that the world has be- 
come religious. Baptists know that by a ministry of 
religious education religious principles are permeating 
society every day in the week. Protracted revivalism 
is giving way to the newer religious education and 
visitation evangelism. Churches with one auditorium 
for preaching and prayer meetings are enlarged, or 
new buildings are erected with special rooms for 
Christian education classes, clubs, and social gather- 
ings. 

The development of centralized control in the de- 
nomination is viewed askance by those who are fear- 
ful that the local churches are losing their authority. 
Yet this changing denomination was never more gen- 
erally the rendezvous of the common people eager to 
hear the good news, was never so intelligent and 
prosperous, so clear as to the content of its message, 
so strategically located in the world, so alert to the 
redemptive work of individuals and of society, and so 
outstanding in its leadership of the people. It has 
within its hand a key to the kingdom of heaven. 



COLLATERAL READING 



Carlile, John C. The Story of the English Baptists. London, 
1905. 
Not too detailed an account of English Baptists. 

Christian, John F. History of the Baptists. Two Volumes. 
Nashville, 1932. 

Here materials culled from authorities of Church 
History speak for the Baptists till 1845. 

Jordan, Lewis G. Negro Baptist History U. S. A. 1750-1930. 
Nashville, 1930. 

Valuable for some documents of the convention 
movement among Negro Baptists and for reflections 
during the lifetime of the author. 

Newman, Albert Henry (editor) A Century of Baptist 
Achievement. Philadelphia, 1901. 
A readable volume of authoritative writings on 
many phases of Baptist development. 

A History of the Baptist Churches in the United 

States. Philadelphia, 1915 

A review by states of outstanding American Bap- 
tist churches, men, and movements. 

Sweet, William Warren. Religion on the American Frontier 
The Baptists 1783-1830. A collection of source ma- 
terial. New York, 1931. 

Important for point of view, materials, and Bibli- 
ography. 

Vedder, Henry C. A Short History of the Baptists, New and 
Illustrated Edition. Philadelphia, 1907. 
A widely used account of the Baptists, especially 
English and American, from the point of view of 
Northern Baptists. 



180 



INDEX 



Abolitionism, 50, 59, 61, 62, 
65. 

Act of Toleration, 15. 

Adventists, 128. 

Africa, 19, 35, 36, 54f., 61, 70, 
71, 72, 73, 88f., 104, 112, 118, 
146, 161, 169. 

Alabama, 68, 97, 102, 110, 
112. 

Alaska, 78. 

American Baptist Associa- 
tion, 138. 

American Baptist (Mission- 
ary Union) Foreign Mis- 
sion Society, 54, 69, 70-73, 
74, 80, 88, 147, 163, 167. See 
also, Triennial Convention 
American Baptist Free Mis- 
sion Society, 67, 69, 73f., 
105, 108, 109. 

American Baptist Historical 
Society, The, 81. 

American Baptist Home Mis- 
sion Society, The, 48ff., 64, 
69, 71, 74-81, 94f., 118. 

American Baptist Publica- 
tion Society, The, 54, 74f., 
82, 84, 98, 148, 163, 168. 

American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions, 52, 172. 

American Colonization So- 
ciety, 55, 61f. 

American National Baptist 
Convention, 113f., 117. 

Anabaptists, 3-9, 12. 

Anderson, Duke William, 111. 

Anderson, Martin B., 141. 

Andreas of Holland, 22. 

Anti-Missionism, 50f., 134-136. 

Anti-Slavery Baptists, 44, 56f., 
58, 66. See also Friends 
to Humanity. 



Argentina, 90. 
Arkansas, 96, 108, 112. 
Arminianism, 12, 27, 30, 131. 
Arnold of Brescia, 3. 
Asplund, John, 37, 57. 
Australasia, 22, 170. 
Austria, 6, 7, 161. 

Backus Historical Society, 81. 

Backus, Isaac, 31, 57. 

Bagley, David, 44. 

Bahama Islands, 37. 

Baldwin, Thomas, 52, 53, 147. 

Baptism, 1, 5, 11, 26, 27. See 
Immersion. 

Baptist (General Association) 
African Convention of the 
Western States and Terri- 
tories, 110, 116f. 

Baptist Congress, 152. 

Baptist Foreign Mission Con- 
vention, 71, 112f., 114, 116f. 

Baptist Statistics, 170. 

Baptist Union, 21, 65. 

Baptist World Alliance, 169f., 
174, 176. 

Baptist Young People's Un- 
ion, 83, 120. 

Barrow, David, 33, 57, 58, 59, 
63. 

Belgium, 166. 

Beliefs, 1, 4, 20, 50, 128f., 
173. See Confessions of 
Faith. 

Bell, T. P., 99. 

Bible Societies, 21f., 53f. 

Bishop, Jacob, 35. 

Blake, Joseph, 30. 

Blaurock, George, 5. 

Boardman, George Dana, 54. 

Bohemia, 3, 166. 

Boulden, Jesse Freeman, 108. 

Boyce, James P., lOOf. 



181 



182 



Index 



Boyd, R. H., 119, 120. 
Brawley, E. M., 115. 
Brazil, 73, 89f. 
Brethren, various sects of, 3, 

125. 
Bright, Edward, 70. 
Brine, John, 15. 
Broadus, John A., 101. 
Brown, Chad, 26. 
Brown, Nathan, 72. 
Brown University, 32, 51, 139, 

140. 
Broyles, Moses, 44. 
Bryan, Andrew, 38, 57. 
Bulgaria, Kit). 
Bunyan, John, 14, 21. 

California, 78, 110. 

Calvin, 4. 

Calvanism, 12, 15, 17, 27, 28, 

29, 30. 
Camp Meetings, 43. 
Campbell, Alexander, 50f., 

123f. 
Canada, 22ff., 35, 3(5, 78, 103, 

110, 169, 175. 
Carey, William, 18f., 46. 
Carmen, Joshua, 58. 
Carter, Bobert, 57. 
Carv, Lott, 54f., 62. 
Cevlon, 19. 
Charles II, 14. 
Chase, Ira, 156. 
Chelcicky, Peter, 3. 
Children, 79, 97, 102, 112, 117, 

144, 151. 
Chile, 90. 

China, 19, 54, 70, 87f., 161. 
Chisman, Thomas, 57. 
Christadelphians, 128. 
Christian, W., 103. 
Christianity, 1, 2, 58, 92f. 
Christians, Denomination of, 

128. 
Church Edifice Gift Fund, 78. 
Church Edifice Loan Fund, 

78. 
Church Membership, 21, 34, 

173. 



Church of God (Reformation 

Movement), 125ff. 
Church of God (Winebren- 

ner), 125. 
Church Union, 172. 
Churches of God (General 

Assembly), The, 127f. 
City Mission Societies, 81. 
Civil War, 60, 74, 78, 88, 93, 

96, 101, 105f, 150. 
Clark, John, 61. 
Clarke, John, 26f. 
Clarke, William Newton, 137. 
Clifford, John, 19, 169. 
Clough, J. E., 72. 
Colleges, 24, 27, 44, 49, 72, 73, 

76, 77, 80, 81, 86, 97, 103, 

116, 118, 139f., 142f. 
Colley, W. W., 89, 112. 
Colorado, 78. 
Colver, Nathaniel, 67. 
Communism, 8. 
Confessions of Faith, 6, 12, 13, 

14, 29, 174. See Beliefs. 
Congregationalists, 6, 12, 31, 

32, 46, 52, 128, 131, 157. 
Connecticut, 28, 31, 43, 46. 
Consolidated American Bap- 
tist Missionary Convention, 

74, 108-111. 
Conwell, Russell, 154, 177. 
Corey, Charles H., 77. 
Cox, F. A., 65. 
Craig, Lewis, 40f. 
Crane, William, 104. 
Craven, Thomas, 44. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 13, 149. 
Crusades, 3. 
Cuba, 81, 97f. 
Currv, J. L. M., 177. 
Customs, 15, R)7, 175. 
Czechoslavakia, 167. 

Dakotas, The, 78. 

David, W. J., 89. 

Davis, Noah, 104. 

Davis, Noah K., 82. 

De Baptist, Richard, 109, HOf. 

Deacons, 1, 173. 



Index 



183 



Deism, 16. 

Delaware, 29. 

Denck, Hans, 4. 

Denmark, 161f., 167. 

Dexter, Gregory, 26. 

Diaz, A. J., 97f. 

Dill, John, 15. 

Disciples, Denomination of, 

51, 123f. 
Discipline, 34, 150, 179. 
District of Columbia, 113, 116, 

117. 
Dixon, W. T., 109, 111. 
Doane, W. H., 148. 
Dodge, Josiah, 58. 
Dorris, Joseph, 42. 
Dow, Lorenzo, quoted, 31. 
Duck River and Kindred 

Baptists, 131. 
Dungan, Thomas, 29. 
Dunkards, The, 124f., 130. 
Dunster, Henry, 27. 

Eaton, Isaac, 32. 

Education, 49, 50, 84f., 99, 

100, 104, 109, 132, 140, 167, 

169. See also Schools, 

Colleges, Seminaries, and 

Universities. 
Edwards, Jonathan, 30. 
Edwards, Morgan, 32. 
El Salvador, 81. 
English Baptist Missionary 

Society, 17ff., 36f., 46, 51. 
Episcopalians, 13, 32, 85. 
Esthonia, 165, 167. 
Evangelicals, 2f. 
Evangelism, 73, 80, 87, 88, 

96, 98,"130fF. 
Evangelization of Negroes, 

90f., 95. 
Evervin of Steinfield, 3. 
Eyres, Nicholas, 150. 
Federal Constitution, 33, 143, 

151. 
Federal Council of the 

Churches of Christ in 

America, 85, 130, 172. 

Sig.— 13 



Feller, Madame, 23. 

Finland, 164, 165. 

First Baptist Church in 
America, 25f. 

First Baptist Church in Eng- 
land, llf. 

First Negro Baptist Churches, 
36-39. 

Fisher, Ezra, 78. 

Florida, 96, 97, 98, 112. 

France, 3, 156f., 167. 

Free Will Baptists, 65, 74, 76, 
85, 131-133. 

Friends to Humanity, 59ff. 

Frierichs, Sicke, 9. 

Frost, J. M., 99. 

Fuller, Andrew, 17, 18. 

Fuller, Richard, 68, 91. 

Furman, Richard, Sr., 33, 53. 

Galusha, Elon, 66. 

Garrison, William Lloyd, 62, 
64. 

General Baptists, 12, 14, 15, 
17, 21, 26, 133. 

General Convention of the 
Baptists of North America, 
171f. 

General Missionary Conven- 
tion of the Baptist Denomi- 
nation, 52f. See also 
Triennial Convention. 

George, David, 36, 175. 

Georgia, 35, 36, 37, 38, 69, 97, 
107, 112, 117, 145. 

Germany, 3, 5ff., 157-161, 167. 

Going, Jonathan, 48. 

Graves, R. H., 87. 

Great Awakening, 30f., 39, 131, 
146f., 151. 

Grebel, 4f. 

Greece, 166f. 

Gregg, Jacob, 58. 

Griffith, Benjamin, 82f., 148. 

Grimes, Leonard, 103, 106f. 9 
111. 

Haiti, 51, 58, 73f., 81, 109, 118. 



184 



Index 



Haldane Brothers, The, 17, 

22f. 
Half-way Covenant, 28. 
Hall, Robert, 19, 21. 
Harper, William Rainey, 141. 
Harrison, General Thomas, 

14. 
Hart, Oliver, 33. 
Hatzer, Ludwig, 5. 
Helwys, Thomas, 11. 
Henry of Lausanne, 3. 
Hoby, J., 65. 
Hoffman, Melchior, 7. 
Holcombe, Henry, 144. 
Holliman, Ezekiel, 25. 
Holman, Russel, 96. 
Holmes, Donald, 58. 
Holmes, Obadiah, 27. 
Homes for Aged, 153. 
Honorary Degrees, 67, 115. 
Hospitals, 70, 79, 87f., 89, 90, 

95, 98, 99, 154. 
Hovey, Alvah, 141. 
Hubmaier, Balthasar, 4. 
Hughes, Joseph, 21f. 
Hungary, 166, 167, 168. 
Huss, John, 3. 
Hut, Hans, 6. 
Hymnody of the Baptists, 

146-149, 158. 

Idaho, 78. 

Illinois, 43, 44f., 49, 59, 108, 

109, 111, 137. 
Immersion, 12, 13, 22, 53, 123, 

125, 162, 173. 
Independent Baptist Church 

of America, 135f. 
India, 18, 19, 52ff., 54, 70, 72, 

132, 161. 
Indian Territory, 49, 80, 96. 
Indiana, 43, 44, 49, 108, 145. 
Indians, 28, 41, 48, 49, 56, 80, 

92, 96, 142. 
Iowa, 61. 
Ireland, 13, 21. 
Isaac, E. W. D., 120. 
Italy, 3, 168. 



Jackson, Daniel, 57. 
Jacob, Henry, 12. 
Jamaica, 37. 
Japan, 70, 74, 89f. 
Jasper, John, 177. 
Jefferson, Thomas, 60. 
Jesus, 1, 63, 151, 155, 169. 
Jeter, J. B., 66, 67. 
John of Xeyden, 8. 
John the Baptist, 1. 
Johnson, Francis, 10. 
Johnson, Hezekiah, 78. 
Judson, Adoniram, 51f. 
Jugoslavia, 167f. 

Kelly, Edmund, 106. 
Kentucky, 40f., 51, 59, 63, 96, 

100f., 110, 145. 
Kiffen, William, 13. 
King, G. M. P., 77. 
Knapp, Jacob, 67, 150. 
Knollys, Hanserd, 13. 
Koebner, Julius, 158, 161. 

Lathrop, John, 12. 

Latvia, 165, 167. 

Lehmann, Gottfried Wilhelm, 

159. 
Leland, John, 57, 147, 177. 
Lemen family, 44, 60. 
Lemon, William, 35. 
Leonard, Chauncey, 73. 
Liberalism, 136-138. 
Liele, George, 36, 37, 38. 
Lithuania, 161, 165, 167. 
Lord's Supper, 1, 20f., 132, 

173, 175f. 
Lott Cary Baptist Foreign 

Mission Convention, 117f., 

121. 
Louisiana, 45f., 108, 112. 
Love, E. K., 71. 
Lukar, Mark, 26. 
Luther, Martin, 4, 7, 149. 
Lutherans, 7, 8, 159, 163. 

Maine, 30, 31, 131, 145, 164. 
Manly, Basil, Jr., 101. 



Index 



185 



Manning, James, 26, 32, 57. 
Manz, Felix, 5. 
Marshall, Abraham, 38. 
Marshall, Andrew, 93. 
Marshall, Daniel, 32, 
Maryland, 30, 56, 96, 113, 116. 
Mason, Francis, 72. 
Massachusetts, 25, 27f., 30, 31, 

35, 39, 56. 
Massachusetts Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society, 46, 48, 51. 
Mathews, Shailer, 152. 
Matthys, Jan, 7f. 
MacArthur, Robert Staurt, 

176. 
McClannahan, Elder, 33. 
McCoy, Isaac, 44, 45, 48, 49. 
McLaren, Alexander, 19. 
Meachum, John Berry, 48, 57. 
Menno, Simons, 8f. 
Mennonites, 8f., 10, 11, 12, 

128, 156, 165. 
Mercer, Jesse, 66. 
Mexico, 78, 80, 89f. 
Michigan, 43, 45, 49. 
Miller, Theodore Doughty, 

115. 
Miller, William, 128. 
Ministers, 1, 42, 79, 102, 151, 

173, 176, 177. 
Missions, 42, 67, 98, 132, 156. 
Mississippi, 108, 109, 110, 112. 
Missouri, 47f., 57, 60, 96, 108. 
Mitchell, Edward, 103f. 
Montana, 78. 
Moore, Miss Jonanna P., 113, 

142f. 
Moravia, 5. 
Moravians, 16. 
Morehouse, Henry L. quoted, 

77. 
Morris, Elias C, 117, 120, 

176. 
Morris, Philip F., 116. 
Mullins, E. Y., 174. 
Munster, 8. 
Murdock, John N., 71. 
Murton, John, 11. 
Myles, John, 13, 27. 



National Baptist Convention 
of America (unincorpo- 
rated), 120f. 

National Baptist Convention 
of the United States of 
America (incorporated), 
116-122. 

National Baptist Education 
Convention, 116f. 

Negro Free Baptists, 133. 

Negro Preachers, as slave- 
holders, 57. 

Negro Primitive Baptists, 135. 

Negroes of Providence Plan- 
tation, 56. 

Netherlands, 7, 9, 10f., 166. 

Nevada, 78. 

New England, 12, 25, 30, 32, 
33, 75, 107. 

New England Baptist Mission- 
ary Convention, 110, 116f. 

New Hampshire, 31, 65, 103, 
131. 

New Jersey, 29, 43. 

New Lights, 31, 32. See Sep- 
arate Baptists. 

New Mexico, 78, 96. 

New York, 28, 39, 43, 66, 97, 
108, 109, 110. 

New Zealand, 22, 170. 

Newman, William P., 73, 108. 

Nicaragua, 81. 

Nilsson, Frederick 0.> 163f. 

Non-English Speaking Ameri- 
cans," 78f., 98, 142. 

North Carolina, 30, 40, 112, 
132, 145. 

Northern Baptist Convention, 
83-86, 137, 155, 172. 

Norway, 161, 162, 164, 167. 

Northwestern and Southern 
Baptist Convention, 107f. 

Ohio, 43, 61, 108, 145. 
Oncken, Johann Gerard, 

157ff., 161, 163, 165. 
Oregon, 78. 

Orientals, American, 80. 
Orphanages, 20, 79, 153. 



186 



Index 



Palestine-Syria, 90. 

Palmer, Paul, 132, 

Parker, Daniel, 50, 134. 

Particular Baptists, 12, 14, 
15, 17, 21. 

Paul, Apostle, 1, 63. 

Paul, Thomas, 51. 

Peck, John Mason, 46ff., 62, 
150. 

Pennsylvania, 29, 39, 55, 145. 

Pentecost, 1. 

Perry, Rufus L., 109, llOf. 

Peter, Apostle, 1. 

Peter de Bruys, 3. 

Peter (Old Captain), 40f. 

Peters (Galphin), Jesse, 36, 
38. 

Philadelphia Association, 29, 
31 32 129. 

Philanthropy, 20, 75f., 140, 
142, 154. 

Philippine Islands, 70. 

Phillips, D. W., 77. 

Poland, 165, 167. 

Polygamy, 8. 

Porto Rico, 81. 

Portugal, 166. 

Powell, Vavasor, 13. 

Press, religious, 17. 49, 52, 65, 
79, 82, 89, 95, 98f., 108f., 
117, 118, 120, 144ff., 151. 

Primitive Baptists, 134f. 

Providence Anti-Slavery Bap- 
tist Association of Ohio, 44. 

Quakers, 6, 14, 29, 32. 
Quassey, first Negro Baptist, 
31f. 

Randall, Benjamin, 131. 
Rauschenbush, Walter, 152. 
Reconstruction, The, 74, 111, 
114. 

Reformation, The Protestant, 
3. 

Regular Baptists, 31, 32, 41, 
130. 



Religious Education, 23, 82, 

117, 120, 144, 172, 178, 179. 

See Baptist Young People's 

Union and Sunday Schools. 
Religious Liberty, 13, 33. 
Revolutionary War, 33, 40, 42, 
Rhode Island, 25ff., 31, 34, 56. 
Rice, Luther, 52, 53. 
Richards, Henry, 73. 
Riverside Church, 155, 172. 
Roberts, T. J., 87. 
Rockefeller, John D., 84, 99. 
Rogers, William, 57. 
Roman Catholic Church, 2, 3, 

6, 8, 9. 
Rothmann, Bernard, 8. 
Roumania, 161, 167. 
Roussy, M., 23. 
Russia, 161, 165f., 167, 169. 
Ryland, John, 18. 
Ryland, Robert, 92. 

Sakellarios, Demetrius, 167. 

Sater, Henry, 56. 

Sattler, Michael, 6. 

Saunders, Prince, 104. 

Savonarola, 3. 

Schools, 17, 23, 24, 32, 70, 74f., 
81, 87, 88, 90, 98, 100, 118, 
119f., 139, 151, 164. See also 
Colleges, Seminaries, and 
Universities. 

Schroeder, Gustaf W., 163f. 

Schuck, J. L., 87. 

Scotland, 13. 

Screven, William, 30. 

Scriptures, 1, 3, 4, 11, 12, 19, 
52, 63, 74, 157, 174. 

Sears, Barnas, 141, 158. 

Secret Societies, 67, 132. 

Seminaries, theological, En- 
glish, 20; American, 48, 51, 
79, 100f., 110, 140, 159f. 

Separate Baptists, 31, 32, 33, 
41, 130. 

Separatists, 10. 

Seventh Day Baptists, 14, 
129f. 



Index 



187 



Siam, 54. 

Simmons, William J., 113, 

114f. 
Six-Principle Baptists, 14, 26, 

27, 28, 3.0, 129. 
Slavery, 42, 57f., 64, 66, 106, 

111, 132. 
Smith, George, 58. 
Smith, Hezekiah, 31, 32, 33, 

56. 
Smith, Samuel Francis, 147f. 
Smyth, John, 11. 
Social Gospel, 69, 99, 151-155. 
Socialists, Christian, 152f. 
South Carolina, 30, 35, 36, 37, 

45, 68, 100f., 115. 
Southern Baptist Convention, 

69, 81, 87-102, 110, 112, 

118ff., 137, 148, 151, 168, 

171f. 
Southern Baptist Theological 

Seminary, 94, 100f., 137, 168, 

174. 
Southern Baptists, 30. 
Spain, 167. 

Spanish-American War, 98. 
Spilsbury, John, 12, 26. 
Spurgeon, Charles Haddon, 

19ff. 
Staughton, William, 47, 57. 
Stearns, Shubal, 32. 
Stevens, Robert, 34f. 
Stillman, Samuel, 56. 
Strong, Augustus Hopkins, 

137, 141. 
Stuarts, The, 13. 
Sumner, M. T., 97. 
Sunday Schools, 47, 132, 144. 
Sutton, John, 58. 
Sweden, 161, 162ff., 167. 
Switzerland, 4f., 166. 

Tackamason, John, 28. 
Tarrant, Carter, 58. 
Taylor, Dan, 17. 
Taylor, G. B., 168. 
Taylor, J. B., 89. 
Taylor, John, 50. 



Temperance, 105, 112, 114, 

132, 149f. 
Tennessee, 40, 41f., 107, 109, 

110, 112. 
Texas, 96, 112. 
Tichenor, I. T., 97. 
Triennial Convention, 46, 49, 

52f., 54, 64, 65, 66, 68f., 70, 

87, 89, 156, 158, 166. 
Troy, William, 108. 
Tupper, H. A., 89, 102. 
Tupper, Henry Martyn, 77. 
Turner, Nat, 63. 
Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Pre- 

destinarian Baptists, 134. 
Underground Railroad, 103. 
Unitarians, 15. 
United American Free Will 

Baptists, 132f. 
Universities, 23, 24, 25, 72, 76, 

77, 100, 104, 114f., 116, 139f. 
University of Chicago, 84, 137, 

140. 
Utah, 78. 

Vermont, 31, 104. 

Virginia, 12, 30, 32, 33, 35, 39, 

40, 54f., 57, 63, 67, 102, 107; 

108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 116, 

145. 

Waldensians, 3, 4. 
Walker, Charles T., 177. 
Wales, 13. 

Wallis, Mrs. Beeby, 18. 
Ward, William, 52. 
Waring, Colston W., 55. 
Washington, Booker T., 141. 
Wayland, Francis, 66, 68, 141, 
Welch, James E., 46. 
Wesleyan Revival, 16, 149. 
West Indies, 19, 35, 64, 103, 
118, 170. 

West Virginia, 145. 
Weston, Henry G., 141. 
Whitfield, George, 16, 30. 
Wiberg, Andreas, 163. 
Wickenden, William, 26, 28. 



188 



Index 



Wightman, Valentine, 28, 150. 
Williams, Roger, 25f., 56, 174. 
Williams, William, 101. 
Willingham, R. J., 89. 
Willis, Joseph, 45f. 
Wisconsin, 43, 45. 
Woman's American Baptist 

Foreign Mission Society, 73. 
Woman's American Baptist 

Home Mission Society, 81, 

142. 
Woman's Missionary Union, 

lOlf. 
Woman's National Baptist 



Convention, 117. 
Women, 24, 28, 43, 44, 52, 81, 

97f., 101, 112, 141-143. 
Wood, W. B., 97. 
World War, 149, 160f., 166. 
Worship, 146f., 178. 
Wyclif, 3. 
Wyoming, 78. 

Yates, M. T., 87. 

Zwickau, prophets of, 7. 
Zwingli, Ulric, 5. 



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